I started this season prior to when agencies started releasing their forecasts for this upcoming season, and when I expected it to be much more active in nature (similar to the 2004season). Due to the fact that most agancies are calling for a slightly above-average season, I'm considering the fact that my predictions listed here are an overestimate. I will start a Predictions, Version 2 article that correlates more with the given forecasts upon completion of this article. Nevertheless, I still believe there is a small chance of a season like this happening in 2016.
The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was an active season that resulted in the formation of nineteen named storms, ten hurricanes, and six major hurricanes; a near record number of named storms, only surpassed by the 1933 and 2005seasons, and tying with the 1887, 1995, 2010, 2011, and 2012 seasons for the highest amount of named storms in a single season and for being the third most active Atlantic season overall. Due to the transition from a Strong El Niño to a Moderate La Niña, activity was at its highest since 2012, though the storms of 2016 were more intense in nature. The season ran mainly year-round, with the formation of Hurricane Alex on January 13 and the dissipation of Hurricane Tobias in late December, with the season officially starting June 1 and ending November 30, the dates that typically delimit tropical cyclone formation in the North Atlantic. However, as the 2016 season demonstrated, tropical cyclone formation is possible any time of the year.
The season featured the highest number of hurricanes since the 2012 season, with 2016 totalling ten hurricanes, six of which became major hurricanes, an amount not seen since 2005. The season started exceptionally early, with the formation of Hurricane Alex on January 13, having become the first January hurricane since Hurricane Alice of 1955. Another highlight of 2016 was that the first Category 5 hurricane was seen in the Atlantic basin since Felix of 2007, Hermine, which peaked at 175 MPH, 893 mbar. Hermine, after making three separate landfalls (two of which would occur in the same place), would eventually become the third costliest hurricane in Atlantic history, as well as the fourth most intense hurricane in the Atlantic, only to be surpassed by Category 5 Hurricane Karl weeks later.
Hurricane Karl was the second Category 5 hurricane to occur during the season, eventually peaking at 180 MPH, 891 mbar, becoming one of the most intense hurricanes to form in the Atlantic. Karl also made landfall in Nicaragua at peak intensity, resulting in massive devastation, becoming the third costliest hurricane in Atlantic history, having knocked Hermine out of her spot, as well as downgrading the storm to the fifth most intense hurricane in Atlantic history, after Karl became the third most intense. 2016 was also one of only two seasons to have two Category 5 hurricanes make landfall at Category 5 intensity, with 2007 being the only other known occurence of this.
A large portion of the storms caused significant damage, with the first storm (Nicole) making landfall in the U.S. at major hurricane intensity since Wilma of 2005. In addition, several other major and non-major hurricanes all made landfall in places around the Atlantic at or near peak intensity, causing significant damage. In late December, the most intense post-season tropical cyclone developed; Hurricane Tobias, making landfall in Florida on December 25 (the celebration of Christmas) at Category 3 intensity, causing a high amount of power outages across the eastern United States.
With more than half of the storms making landfall in different parts of the Atlantic whilst tropical, 2016 became the second costliest Atlantic hurricane season on record, only behind 2005. Only five storms; Hurricane Colin, Tropical Storm Danielle, Tropical Storm Gaston, Hurricane Paula, and Tropical Storm Shary did not have any major direct effects or impacts on land while tropical. 2016 also became the third hurricane season to feature two pre-season tropical cyclones (Bonnie & Alex), which became the first occurrence since 2012 and the third only known occurrence since 1951. Template:Infobox hurricane season image
|Record high activity||28||15||7|
|Record low activity||4||2†||0|
|TSR||December 16, 2015||13||5||2|
|TSR||April 5, 2016||12||6||2|
|CSU||April 14, 2016||13||6||2|
|NCSU||April 15, 2016||15-18||8-11||3-5|
|UKMO||May 12, 2016||14||8||N/A|
|NOAA||May 31, 2016||15||8||3|
|* June–November only|
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)
January & February
On January 13, an extratropical low pushing east across the Northern Atlantic developed into what became known as Hurricane Alex; the first named January storm and hurricane since Alice in 1955. The precursor to the system brought 60 MPH winds and heavy rainfall to Bermuda, and then took on tropical characteristics on January 13, nearing the Azores. Alex, after causing minimal damages in the Azores, shifted WNW as it turned extratropical, dissipating two days later on January 15.
February remained a quiet month, as no other systems or invests developed during the course of the month.
May & June
Tropical Storm Bonnie developed on May 22, 2016, after a very quiet period with no activity during the months of February, March, or April. Bonnie first developed near the Virgin Islands before making a complete loop in the Central Gulf, peaking at 50 MPH, prior to making landfall in Cedar Key, Florida, causing minimal damage with moderate winds and steady rain, eventually leading to moderate coastal flooding in the area, dissipating soon after, with the extratropical remnants of Bonnie making landfall in Nova Scotia, where further damage from the storm would occur.
June proved to be an active month, as three named storms formed during the month, of which two reached hurricane status. Hurricane Colin was the first of the June storms, becoming a hurricane a day after formation on June 12, eventually peaking at 80 MPH, south of Bermuda, before shifting ENE, skirting the island with rain showers prior to becoming extratropical, with the storm's remnants making landfall in Ireland, having caused very minimal damage and resulting in no casualties. Tropical Storm Danielle was the fourth named storm of the season, developing near the Bahamas and traveling along the coast of the Eastern United States prior to turning extratropical near Iceland. Hurricane Earl was the first major hurricane of the season, developing Northeast of Turks & Caicos and making several loops in the western portion of the Northern Atlantic, skimming Bermuda but never making landfall there. Earl also produced indirect effects on the U.S., when large swells from the storm reportedly overturned several boats, resulting in the deaths of several people. Earl began to shift ENE near Bermuda as it continued to intensify into a major hurricane, the first of the season, going on to cause damage in the Azores, and in the UK and even Russia while extratropical. The end of June concluded with the dissipation of Subtropical Depression Six, which formed east of Turks & Caicos, later caused rain showers in Florida before entering the Gulf of Mexico and being absorbed by a frontal system only a day later.
July & August
July was slightly less active than the previous month, with only two named storms forming: Fiona, a classic Cape Verde major hurricane that peaked at Category 4 intensity, followed by Gaston, a short-lived tropical storm that formed near Puerto Rico and traveled just east of the Eastern United States. Hurricane Fiona developed from a Cape Verde tropical wave on July 11 and began to explosively intensify as it traveled west over the Central Atlantic. Fiona peaked at 145 MPH near Turks and Caicos, making a near-direct hit there, causing massive devastation, prior to turning North and hitting Bermuda as a high-end Category 2 hurricane. Fiona then turned extratropical, remaining at C1 strength and then made a direct landfall on Nova Scotia, dissipating entirely as it was absorbed by a frontal system over Prince Edward Island. Tropical Storm Gaston developed north of Puerto Rico from a band of storms along a frontal system when a core of low pressure began to develop. The system developed subtropical, but eventually became tropical as it passed just east of the United States, causing minor issues with rough surf and coastal flooding. Gaston eventually followed Fiona's track into Nova Scotia where it made landfall as an extratropical cyclone on July 30.
August was one of the most active months of the season, ahead of June and September due to the amount of storms forming during the month. Hurricane Hermine was the first Category 5 hurricane to occur in the Atlantic since Hurricane Felix in 2007. The storm developed from a well-defined tropical wave over the Central Atlantic, and continued to travel Northwest for the majority of its life, staying out to sea. However, Hermine peaked near Bermuda at 175 MPH, causing catastrophic damage with high winds and storm surge. Hermine then looped to the northeast of Bermuda and turned southwest, once again making an indirect hit on the island as a weak Category 5. Hermine then made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, causing widespread wind damage as far inland as Raleigh. Hermine then turned extratropical near New York and eventually pushed into Atlantic Canada, the storm's remnants dissipating over Newfoundland. Hermine was the third costliest hurricane to occur in the Atlantic, pushing Ike of 2008 down to number 4, sitting only behind Hurricanes Katrina of 2005 and Sandy of 2012, having resulted in over $53 billion in damages, the majority of it in Bermuda and North Carolina. Hermine was also directly responsible for over 62 deaths. In addition, Hermine is also responsible for a super outbreak of tornadoes that occurred on August 16-17, during a period in which 98 tornadoes formed from North Carolina to Quebec and caused major damage across the Carolinas and East Coast of the United States. While the majority of the tornadoes were weak, several twisters, including a powerful EF2 in North Carolina (the strongest of the outbreak), caused massive devastation.
Hurricane Ian developed just days after Hermine on August 12, 435 miles southeast of the Leeward Islands from an initially poorly-defined tropical wave. However, the wave gradually intensified into a depression due to low wind shear, which normally inhibits tropical development over water. Ian eventually hit the Leeward Islands on August 13 as a tropical storm, though damage was minimal. Ian peaked as a Category 2 hurricane with 105 MPH winds prior to making landfall in Quintana Roo as a weakening Category 1 hurricane, causing over $200 million in damages. Ian then turned extratropical before experiencing a short rebirth of strength as a tropical system over the Gulf before dissipating completely near Louisiana. Tropical Storm Julia developed north of Puerto Rico and then continued to travel WNW as a strong tropical storm, causing significant damage in Turks and Caicos, severely hampering re-building efforts from Hurricane Fiona the previous month. Julia also hit the lower Bahamas, where the storm caused significant flooding; the worst to occur there in Atlantic history. Julia remained tropical as it made landfall in Miami, Florida, causing minimal damage prior to regaining strength over the Gulf of Mexico as a subtropical system, causing considerable damage in the Florida panhandle.
Hurricane Karl was the second Category 5 hurricane of the season, and ultimately became the strongest of the season, and is one of the strongest hurricanes to occur in the Atlantic, behind Wilma of 2005 and Gilbert of 1988, with a record low pressure of 891 mbar. Karl is also tied with Rita of 2005 and Mitch of 1998 for having the most intense wind speeds, with maximum winds estimated to be 180 MPH. Karl developed from a late-stage tropical wave-extratropical low merger that defied initial forecasts, later attaining Category 1 intensity on the same day it formed, August 18; eventually strengthening to Category 5 over the Caribbean, and making landfall at that intensity in Nicaragua, causing massive devastation, knocking Hermine out of third place for being one of the most costliest hurricanes in the Atlantic, with damages estimated to be $59 billion. In addition, Karl's winds and heavy rainfall resulted in enormous mudslides that caused over 2,000 fatalities in Nicaragua and Honduras, making the storm the most significant in terms of deaths. Karl also had effects on Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Quintana Roo, the ABC Islands, and Venezuela while over the Caribbean, in addition to devastating sections of the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico as a Category 4 hurricane, eventually tracking into New Mexico while still retaining tropical characteristics, making Karl the first ever Atlantic storm to last into New Mexico at hurricane strength while still retaining tropical characteristics. Tropical Storm Lisa developed on August 21 near Jamaica. Lisa narrowly avoided being absorbed by Hurricane Karl as it passed to the storm's south, however, Lisa continued to push NW into Cuba, causing minimal damage prior to emerging over the Gulf, where Lisa attained a peak intensity of 50 MPH prior to making landfall in New Orleans, where damage was mainly minimal, eventually going on to cause problems as an extratropical system over the eastern United States. The precursor to Tropical Depression Fourteen had effects on the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos, mainly flooding attributed to heavy rainfall, in addition to scattered power outages and tree damage due to gusty winds.
September & October
September got off to an early start to an increasingly active season with the formation of Tropical Storm Matthew on September 4. Matthew developed in the Gulf of Mexico and continued to travel Northeast, eventually making landfall in Tampa, Florida on September 6 shortly after reaching peak intensity. Effects were mainly minimal. Hurricane Nicole was an intense Category 4 hurricane that formed to the east of the Bahamas and began pushing west, making numerous landfalls. Damage was mainly minimal in the Bahamas, where Nicole made landfall as a weak tropical storm, followed by a short burst of the strengthening while it made landfall in Florida as a Category 1. Nicole then emerged over the Gulf of Mexico, having not weakened, but continued to strengthen over the Gulf, eventually peaking at 150 MPH, 939 mbar, followed by a turn north, thus resulting in a direct landfall in Lousiana at Category 3 intensity, having become the first hurricane to make landfall in the U.S. as a major storm since Wilma in 2005, thus resulting in massive damage. Nicole resulted in $24.3 billion in damages, making it the 7th costliest Atlantic hurricane on record, behind Andrew of 1992, which was lowered to 6th due to Hurricanes Karl and Hermine taking 3rd and 4th places, respectively. Tropical Storm Otto developed from an initially weak tropical wave that began tracking northeast, strengthening to a depression over the Cayman Islands, causing slight damage. Emerging over the Gulf, the system then took on an enormous size, entering a Fujiwhara with Hurricane Nicole but quickly removing itself from that, having lost a quarter of its circulation to Nicole. Otto them made landfall in Central Florida, absorbing the remnants of a weaker tropical system, causing heavy damage with high winds and torrential rainfall. Hurricane Paula, a low-end Category 1 hurricane, did not impact land while tropical. Paula developed over the Northern Atlantic and remained at sea for the majority of its life, however, Paula did impact the Azores as an extratropical system, making 2016 the first season in which three storms ever impacted the Azores during a single season. Paula's effects were overall considerable, with nearly $93 million in damages exacting from the storm. Paula was also the only storm of the season to impact Portugal, the first Atlantic storm to do so since Gordon of 2012.
October started with the transition of Hurricane Paula into an extratropical cyclone. Subtropical Storm Richard later developed on October 6 far east of the Leeward Islands. The subtropical precursor to Richard persisted for several days as subtropical depression, followed by landfalls in Barbados and later the Dominican Republic/Puerto Rico, where heavy rainfall caused severe flooding, much like Erika did the previous season. Richard would attain subtropical storm status over the Dominican Republic before rapidly degenerating into a remnant trough. The remnants of Richard would go on to cause moderate damage in Florida, as well as directly impacting the Florida Keys.
November & DecemberOn November 11, Tropical Storm Shary, a strong tropical storm, developed 75 miles due east of the Lesser Antilles in the Northern Atlantic. Shary never directly impacted land while tropical, thpugh causing flood damage as a tropical wave in Barbados, but staying to the north of Venezuela. Shary dissipated on November 17 after an indirect hit north of Aruba, having caused minimal damage and minor flooding there, attributed to heavy rain produced by Shary's outer bands. Shary later dissipated as an upper-level low that brought heavy rainfall to Belize on November 18. In early December, a late season Cape Verde tropical wave began to cross the Central Atlantic, battering heavy wind shear and cool waters, fluctuating between tropical storm and tropical depression status for several days. This storm, better known as Hurricane Tobias, was the final hurricane of the season and the most intense off-season tropical cyclone to date, having peaked as a 125 MPH Category 3 major hurricane. Tobias intensified in the favorable Caribbean Sea, becoming a Category 3 just west of the Florida Keys only a day before Christmas. Tobias made landfall in the Florida panhandle on Christmas Day (December 25) at Category 3 intensity, causing hundreds of thousands of electrical blackouts on that day. Because the storm "ruined Christmas" for many, it was nicknamed "Hurricane Grinch" and "Hurricane Scrooge", amongst many other things. Tobias became the 10th costliest Atlantic hurricane on record, having caused $15.8 billion in damages, only behind Ivan of 2004. Hurricane Tobias dissipated into an extratropical storm on December 27, having put an end to a very active season.
Main Article: Hurricane Alex (2016)
On January 7, the National Hurricane Center noted the potential for an extratropical low about 425 mi (685 km) west-southwest of Bermuda to gain subtropical or tropical characteristics over subsequent days, as it tracked across the central Atlantic. Convection began to coalesce near the center of the low on January 13, leading to the formation of Subtropical Storm Alex about 785 miles (1,260 km) south-southwest of the Azores, at 21:00 UTC. Alex is the first tropical or subtropical storm to form in January since 1978, and only the fourth known tropical or subtropical cyclone formation during the month on record. When Alex became a hurricane at 15:00 UTC on January 14, it marked only the second recorded hurricane formation in January, with the other being Hurricane One in 1938. On January 15, the NHC issued its last advisory on Hurricane Alex, as the system transitioned back into an extratropical cyclone. On January 17, Alex was absorbed by another extratropical cyclone, in the southern Labrador Sea.
Taken from Wikipedia
Tropical Storm Bonnie
On May 22, an area of intensifying low-pressure associated with powerful thunderstorms began to track west, just north of Puerto Rico, as it began developing circulation. Within hours, this new system became Tropical Depression Two. Two was responsible for heavy rainfall in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, with Santo Domingo reporting an estimated 9.34 inches of rain fell in the city as the storm passed to the north, resulting in sporadic flooding as the core of the storm remained to the north. The heavy rain was also responsible for widespread power outages as powerful torrents began to severely affect power grids in several locations. Two remained a depression as it shifted northwest, producing heavy rainfall and at least three weak tornadoes over the Inagua Islands. Two also had effects on southern Florida as well as Cuba, with reports of flash flooding attributed to torrential rain - much of it caused by humidity and high levels of moisture in the Caribbean as well as the Gulf of Mexico. On May 23, Two hit Key West, Florida, causing damage with gusty winds reaching 35 MPH; gusts as high as 60 MPH. A burst of convection in Two's core resulted in a further pressure drop to 993 mbar just as it made landfall. Minor coastal flooding was reported along the Florida Keys as Two caused a four-foot storm surge, resulting in the closure of many south Floridan beaches. Two also caused a possible EF1 tornado in Marathon, Florida when several homes were found to have severe roof damage, and heavy tree damage abounded. Two then fully entered the Gulf; undergoing powerful bursts of convection in the core as circulation continued to improve substantially. On May 24, Two had intensified to 40 MPH offshore from Biloxi, officially becoming Tropical Storm Bonnie.Soon after intensifying, Bonnie began to shift southwest, making a full loop in the Gulf as it began to track Northeast, towards Florida. Bonnie continued to intensify as small bursts of convection resulted in the repeated development of thunderstorms within the storm's center, as well as a three millibar drop in pressure from 991 mbar to 989 mbar. Within hours, Bonnie's circulation tightened to the point where the storm became relatively small, but very strong - 50 MPH, 989 mbar. As Bonnie approached Cedar Key, Florida, swells from the storm reached only three feet, but managed to disrupt boating activities, as well as resulting in beach closures from Panama City to Sarasota. On May 25, Bonnie made landfall in Cedar Key with 50 MPH winds, causing extensive damage. Power outages extended from Cedar Key to Tampa due to strong winds snapping electrical wires and/or trees on power lines, affecting tens of thousands of customers. Due to increased speed in the storm's movement, rainfall was relatively light; highest rainfall totaled 8.75 inches in Cedar Key. Bonnie was also responsible for multiple tornadoes during its landfall - most of which caused severe damage across central Florida. Bonnie began to turn extratropical soon after exiting Florida and began tracking northeast along the eastern United States, continuing to cause inclement weather in the Carolinas, Virginia, and New England. North Carolina reported seven inches of rainfall and gusts exceeding 80 MPH during Extratropical Storm Bonnie. Powerful squall squall lines from Bonnie produced tornadoes and heavy rainfall in eastern Virginia. Bonnie then re-entered the North Atlantic after shifting northeast, on track to hit Nova Scotia. On May 27, Bonnie made landfall as a strong extratropical system packing 45 MPH winds, with a direct hit on Yarmouth. Bonnie also brought a five-foot storm surge with heavy rain, resulting sporadic flooding across the coast, as well as low-basin areas inland. Damage from the system was considerable - widespread power outages due to downed wires, as well as reports of inundated homes due to flooding. Multiple trees were reported to be snapped or uprooted due to high winds, resulting in the isolation of many communities. In total, Bonnie caused over $122 million in damages, with six confirmed deaths in Florida. Damage from Bonnie was overall worse than expected. Overall, Bonnie was a rather strong system that had powerful effects, even when extratropical.
Tropical Storm Danielle
On June 18, an upper-level low merged with an extratropical system northeast of Turks and Caicos and soon became well-organized enough to undergo developing closed circulation. As the system's rain bands continued to form, sustained winds near 35 MPH were identified in the core, thus resulting in an upgrade to Subtropical Depression Five. The next day, as Five continued to travel WNW, it shed its tropical characteristics and was upgraded to fully tropical when stable closed circulation was identified in the system. Hours later, Five continued to rapidly intensify as pressure in storm's core continued to sink. Wind speeds inexplicably jumped to 50 MPH, resulting in a further upgrade to Tropical Storm Earl as it neared the United States; rough surf resulting in hundreds of rescues of swimmers near Hilton Head, though no drownings were reported. Soon after, a change in steering currents resulted in Earl being turned northeast, where it once again underwent rapid intensification. At 2230UTC June 19, Earl began to develop an eye and more complex storm bands as bursts of convection in the core further assisted in more intense development. Only minutes later, Earl acquired hurricane-force winds of 75 MPH. The next day, Earl passed to the south of Bermuda, causing problems there with tropical-storm force winds and rip currents. Damage was mainly light; light flooding and broken tree limbs, though no electrical blackouts or structural damage was reported. Earl continued to travel northeast, remaining at an annular intensity of 90 MPH for several days until June 23, when Earl entered a very favorable zone of the Northern Atlantic southwest of the Azores, rapidly undergoing intensification into a Category 2 hurricane, only hours later acquiring a peak intensity of 115 MPH, 964 mbar, becoming the first major hurricane of the season.
On June 23, soon after becoming a Category 3 Major Hurricane, Earl shifted NNE, missing a direct hit on the Azores Islands, but still producing torrential rainfall on the São Miguel island, with the islands to the northwest receiving fringe effects, resulting in massive flooding in valleys of low-lying areas, as well as mudslides that decimated hillside villages, as well as stranding hundreds in high-basin areas. Debris on mountain roads inhibited rescues and resulted in the closure of several important pathways among towns. Heavy rains inundated thousands of homes due to flooding, while high winds topping 60 MPH snapped thousands of trees, isolating many communities whilst causing sporadic power outages. Earl's hit proved to be more devastating than Alex's earlier in the season, even though Earl's was an indirect hit, having caused $8 million in damages and resulting in 37 fatalities. Later that day, Earl then entered a trough of wind shear, which began to rapidly disorganize and severely weaken Earl as it crossed over into cooler waters. By June 24, Earl was a disorganized Category 1 hurricane with a decreasing wind field as the core started to cool. Later that day, Earl began an extratropical transition back to a remnant low with winds of 65 MPH. The next day, Earl turned northeast once again, making landfall in Cork, Ireland with the force of a post-tropical system packing very heavy winds. Earl caused severe damage, with several homes reporting damaged or lost roofs due to powerful gusts. Hundreds of thousands of trees were uprooted or felled across the UK due to high winds. Over 100+ more houses were damaged when trees collapsed on them. In addition, over a thousand coastal properties reported flooding due to a seven-foot storm surge that came ashore on southwestern Ireland, resulting in beach erosion and coastal flooding, while strong waves sunk boats and destroyed piers all across western Ireland. By June 27, Earl's remnants had finally dissipated over western Russia, having caused $3 million in damages as a post-tropical system whilst over Europe, also resulting in three fatalities.
Subtropical Depression Six
On June 29, an area of low-pressure associated with a frontal system crossing the Central Atlantic began to merge around a steadily deepening core. The system continued to push west, when at 2000UTC, the system was identified to have wind speeds of 30 MPH while still retaining subtropical characteristics as its cloud pattern began to improve. At 0130UTC the next day, June 30, Subtropical Depression Six hit Turks and Caicos as it underwent its weakening phase due to drier air over and around the islands. Hours later, Six continued to push west, causing rain showers over much of southern Florida, with nearly twelve inches of rain falling, especially in Miami, resulting in severe flash flooding and hectic driving conditions when associated with gusty winds in excess of 30 MPH. Six retained its structure and strength while over Florida, emerging over the Gulf of Mexico where it began to absorb more moisture, steadily improving its cloud pattern as thunderstorms began to converge in the core once again, hitting a secondary peak intensity. Six then shifted northeast, making landfall in Florida once again, making this the first time a tropical system had ever made two separate landfalls in the same state within a single day. Six then emerged over the Northern Atlantic as it began to lose convection in its core, despite very favorable conditions for further intensification. A day later, a frontal system absorbed the remnants of Six, thus resulting in its dissipation. Six caused no major damage in Florida or the Bahamas, and no deaths resulted from the system, so its impacts were classified as minimal, despite heavy flooding in the Everglades.
On July 11, a Cape Verde tropical wave became increasingly well-defined as the system took on a cyclonic shape near a rapidly-deepening core of low-pressure. The area of showers and thunderstorms began to intensify due to record-warm waters and a sudden decrease in wind shear as the wave became Tropical Depression Seven. Seven continued to explosively intensify as it crossed the Central Atlantic, attaining Category 1 status on July 14, roughly 670 miles east of the Lesser Antilles as the storm's organization continued to improve substantially due to Fiona entering an environment of decreasing wind shear. The next day, Fiona began to shift northwest as the size of the storm largely increased as it took on annular characteristics. Fiona's intensification continued to rapidly intensify while off-shore of the Leeward Islands, acquiring major hurricane intensity on July 16 when an NHC recon flight found winds of 115 MPH in Fiona's inner eye-wall as bursts of convection continued to strengthen the storm. Fiona largely had indirect impacts on the Leeward Islands as well as the Greater Antilles; large swells presented danger to swimmers and boaters alike; as large waves resulted in the disappearance of several small boats near Antigua and Barbuda, while most harbors and beaches remained closed while the hurricane passed to the east. On July 17, Fiona's core passed 70 miles northeast of the British Virgin Islands just as the storm intensified to Category 4 as it continued to draw in moisture due to warm waters and decreasing wind shear. Fiona had affected the Virgin Islands indirectly, with tropical-storm force winds encompassing an area stretching to San Juan, Puerto Rico, causing severe damage. Heavy rainfall resulted in flash flooding in The Settlement, the city most affected by Fiona. Winds exceeding 80 MPH in strength ripped roof shingles and shutters off homes, while downing thousands of trees and power lines. Blinding rainfall crippled driving conditions on every island, while strong waves destroyed harbors and washed out a plethora of roads, some to the point of being impassible. While the strongest winds remained to the NNE, damage was considered to be devastating; the worst since Erika the previous year.
Fiona remained well-organized as it turned WNW, acquiring its peak intensity of 145 MPH, 935 mbar 12 miles east of Turks and Caicos, which received a much harsher hit from Fiona then the British Virgin Islands, as devastation from the storm was catastrophic, with 130 MPH winds reported in Cockburn Town from an instrument later destroyed by the storm. A twelve-foot storm surge inundated hundreds of homes in Cockburn Town and Balfour Town, as well as washing away roads and up to thirty miles of beach and coastal zones. High winds battered the islands for an entire day, downing thousands of trees and power lines, resulting in a near-total blackout across the islands, making communication impossible. In addition, significant structural damage was reported, with a sizable amount of hotels, restaurants, and businesses reporting roofs blown off, shattered windows, or collapsed walls. Fifteen percent of the islands' housing developments were completely destroyed. In addition, devastating flooding caused major damage to Beaches Turks & Caicos, a top-rated hotel on the island of Providenciales. Fiona also indirectly impacted the Bahamas, with very strong swells killing a majority of sea life; Atlantis Resorts and Waterparks on Paradise Island reported 200 dead dolphins washed up ashore their beaches during the storm. In addition, heavy rainfall caused flooding, and was responsible for the collapse of the roof of the Royal Towers Hotel at Atlantis. Overall, nearly fourteen inches of rain fell during Fiona's passage. Also, 60 MPH winds were responsible for several downed trees across the Bahamas, as well as resulting in scattered power outages, most heavily concentrated in Nassau. Florida was also affected by Fiona; the storm's widespread outer bands dropped six inches of rain over the southeastern end of the state, with rip currents affecting the Florida Keys, resulting in a multitude of rescues of people caught in high tides and rip currents, though no deaths in Florida were reported.
Fiona continued to track on a near-north path, beginning to track northeast as Fiona pushed away from land. Fiona's impacts on the United States were indirect, but tremendous. Rip currents affected the coasts of Georgia and South Carolina; lifeguards performed over 150 rescues on swimmers pulled out to sea on one day alone, July 19. In addition, rough surf severely affected boating conditions, as several small boats capsized due to high waves, while many larger craft found it hard to traverse the high tides. Coastal flooding was reported as far north as Virginia, while several harbors remained closed as Fiona passed nearby. On July 20, Fiona underwent an eyewall-replacement cycle as convection began to slow in the core while moisture became less abundant. Hours later, Fiona degenerated to a 100 MPH Category 2 hurricane, still traveling northeast, while forecast to make a direct hit on Bermuda early the next day. At 1415UTC, July 21, Fiona made landfall in Hog Bay, Bermuda as a rapidly-weakening Category 2 hurricane, still causing significant damage. Fiona's storm surge topped eight feet in height and came directly ashore the islands, flooding nearly 0.25 miles inland overtaking entire beaches, resulting in their closure for up to two weeks after Fiona's departure. Exceptionally high winds exceeding 100 MPH resulted in electrical outages across the island, and uprooted thousands of trees, isolating several towns. In Hamilton, gusts as high as 115 MPH were reported, resulting in the roofs being torn off several buildings, while frame houses reportedly had entire walls be blown down. After passing through Bermuda, Fiona continued to weaken while shifting NNW, completing an extratropical transition on July 23, though a stable core kept the storm at Category 1 strength, with winds maxing at 80 MPH. The next day, Extratropical Storm Fiona made landfall in Halifax, Nova Scotia, making 2016 the first season in which three storms directly impacted Nova Scotia. As an extratropical system with 80 MPH sustained winds, Fiona caused extensive damage; uprooting hundreds of trees and damaging electrical lines, causing widespread power outages. Several homes were also affected by damaging winds; more than 1,000 homes in Halifax were stripped of their roofs. Several hours later, Fiona continued to degenerate into a remnant low prior to being absorbed by a frontal system over Prince Edward Island. In total, Fiona caused $245 million in damages and resulted in a total of 36 fatalities, most of which were in Turks and Caicos.
Tropical Storm Gaston
On July 27, a frontal system associated with a broadband area of low-pressure became well organized enough to be classified as Subtropical Depression Eight, when the system was found to have a warm core of low pressure, as well as winds maxing near 30 MPH, with gusts as high as 50 MPH. Eight continued to track northwest as its convective bands began to show signs of organization while the system developed tight circulation. By the next day, July 28, the system's convective processes began to increase, instantly doubling the size of Eight to nearly 700 square miles as it passed to the east of Turks and Caicos, hit extremely hard by Category 4 Hurricane Fiona only days before. Continuing to track NNW, the system later shed its subtropical characteristics as its cloud patterns continued to grow as storm cells continued to converge in the core. At 2350UTC, Eight was found to have wind speeds of 40 MPH in its core while the eyewall continued to grow, resulting in an upgrade to Tropical Storm Gaston. The next day, Gaston briefly attained 45 MPH winds prior to transitioning back to a subtropical system after undergoing a variant of an eye-wall replacement cycle off the coast of North Carolina. Gaston had minor indirect effects on the United States, as waves exceeding four-feet in height presented dangers to swimmers along the East Coast of the United States, as well as damaging boating harbors already destroyed by other storms earlier in the season. On July 30, Gaston had finished weakening while transitioning into an extratropical depression. Later that day, the outer bands of the system hit New York and the rest of New England, causing heavy downpours as a result of large downdrafts and dropping levels of moisture as the remnants of Gaston entered a cooler and much drier environment. Early the next day, Gaston's remnants made landfall in Maine as a large, but fairly weak extratropical storm with light winds and little to no precipitation due to increasingly dry air. No damage from Gaston was found, and no fatalities were caused by the storm. Gaston's remnants shifted ENE as the system moved over Nova Scotia, becoming the fourth storm of the season to directly hit the country, however, impacts from Gaston were very light. Only several strong breezes resulted from Gaston, affecting large trees across the country, but causing no other damaged other than isolated power outages. In total, damage from Gaston amounted to $456,700, with no fatalities to report. Gaston's remnants later dissipated over the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
This storm is dedicated to Bobnekaro :)
Main Article: Hurricane Hermine (2016)
A well-defined tropical wave pushed out of Cape Verde on August 7, having produced light rain showers and sea breezes around the islands. The system continued to push west as the NHC monitored the system for tropical development, as record-warm waters of 92 degrees Fahrenheit, along with decreasing wind shear allowed for a burst of convection in the system's center, further decreasing the storm's pressure. By August 8, the wave began to take on a cyclonic-type circulation, of which later became closed while bursts of convection within the core increased the already-severe thunderstorm-type activity. Cloud tops continued to build up in the system as it grew to a very large size, increasing the spread of the activity. Massive updrafts built up the storms in the system while they continued to rotate around a developing area of low-pressure. Later, winds intensified to 35 MPH, resulting in an upgrade to Tropical Depression Nine. Shortly thereafter, Nine was upgraded to Tropical Storm Hermine as the storm continued to rapidly intensify, while the system's center of low-pressure continued to drop as Hermine started to build up its eyewall. As Hermine continued to travel west, it remained stalled at 60 MPH while traversing the Central Atlantic. On August 11, Hermine began to shift northwest while 189 miles east of the Leeward Islands. The NHC monitored the possibility of a landfall in Antigua as a Category 1 hurricane, however, Hermine continued to take a sharper turn northwest. On August 12, Hermine became a Category 1 hurricane as a pinhole eye appeared in the core of the storm, just east of Puerto Rico. Large swells produced by Hermine flooded beaches in eastern Puerto Rico, with the outer eyewall producing 60 MPH winds and heavy rain in San Juan. Damage was mainly minimal, however, powerful rip currents pulled over 60 people out to sea, resulting in a plethora of rescues near the Puerto Rican coast. High waves severely damaged coastal buildings and destroyed piers, in addition to washing out several roadways. In total, Hermine's impacts were minimal, having caused $934,000 in damages, and no fatalities or serious injuries were reported as a result of the storm.
Later that day, Hermine passed to the east of Turks & Caicos, causing minimal indirect impacts with strong waves and rip currents; fortunately, no injuries or deaths were reported. Several small boats capsized due to rough surf, though, only minor injuries were reported. Soon after passing to the east of the Bahamas, Hermine underwent explosive intensification into a Category 3 hurricane in less than two hours as the structure became extremely organized. This was due to several powerful bursts of convection causing such a rapid decrease in pressure the eye became extremely visible in a relatively short time. Instability inside Hermine's eyewall largely increased, developing extremely powerful thunderstorms around the center of the warm-cored low, with a wind speed increase to 130 MPH, becoming once of the fastest intensifying storms in the Atlantic basin, despite the fact that Hermine was half-way through its track. Models showed Hermine making a direct hit on Bermuda, unlike other storms of the season, which either skimmed the island or missed it entirely (with the exception of Fiona). President Obama called for a state of emergency in Bermuda as Hermine bore down on the island, with the U.S. Government airlifting supplies and resources into the island; mandatory evacuations began soon after. On August 13, Hermine was producing 155 MPH winds around a well-defined circular eye, with waves as high as 30 feet slamming the Bermudan coast, obliterating harbors and capsizing large boats. Up to 18 miles of coastline was eroded by Hermine's oncoming storm surge, severely shrinking the size of the island nation. Later that day, a recon flight identified a 160 MPH 1-minute sustained wind speed inside Hermine's inner eyewall, resulting in an immediate upgrade to Category 5; the first to occur in the Atlantic since Hurricane Felix in 2007. Hermine began to shift NNE shortly thereafter, making a direct hit on Bermuda certain. Shortly before 1100UTC on August 13, the last of the residents of Bermuda were evacuated and transported back to the United States. At 1155UTC, Hermine attained its peak intensity of 175 MPH, 893 mbar, becoming the most intense hurricane in the Atlantic since 2005's Wilma, as well being the fourth most intense hurricane in the Atlantic in terms of pressure (only to be surpassed by Hurricane Karl weeks later). Shortly thereafter, the storm made landfall in Hog Bay, becoming the strongest landfalling hurricane in Bermuda's hurricane history, as well as the being strongest hurricane at landfall anywhere in the Atlantic, with an 893 mbar pressure at landfall. Damage was catastrophic, as nearly the entire island was plunged underwater due to the thirty-foot storm surge. Entire buildings were swept from their foundations and left clean in wake of the storm. Roads and sidewalks were washed away due to the force of the surge, and nearly all the trees on the island were de-foliaged. Any trees left standing in wake of the violent winds were left as debarked stubs. Power to the island was lost for nearly an entire year following the storm. Debris from obliterated houses was pulled back out to sea as the surge receded, with excessive reports of washed-up wood and glass on the shores of the Carolinas and Virginia for months following Hermine. After making a devastating hit, causing an estimated $38 billion in damages to the island, Hermine weakened slightly as it turned northeast, becoming the most intense hurricane to occur at such a high latitude while still retaining tropical characteristics. On August 14, increasing wind shear, in addition to a patch of cooler waters, imparted a weakening trend in Hermine as it later degenerated down to a 125 MPH Category 3 hurricane west of the Azores, which received powerful swells from Hermine, causing severe coastal flooding and rip currents responsible for snapping boat moorings and capsizing small vessels.
Hermine, forecasted to make a direct hit on the Azores, later made a very unusual sharp southward curve nearly parallel to the track the storm made through Bermuda. Hermine, once again affected by favorable conditions, re-intensified back to Category 4 as the storm's structure continued to improve substantially. Hermine then shifted west on August 14, forecasted to make another hit on Bermuda, though it would be indirect. Several hours later, increased convection steadily rebuilt Hermine's eyewall as it attained a secondary peak intensity of 160 MPH, with a 903 mbar central pressure. Because of this, Hermine began to swell, growing to a size of 1100 feet across, with hurricane-force winds extending nearly 800 miles from the center, causing it to be the second largest hurricane in Atlantic history, only behind 2012's Hurricane Sandy. Later that day, Hermine's outer eyewall hit Bermuda, making Hermine the first storm in Atlantic history to make landfall in the same place at nearly identical identities within days of each landfall. Return flights to Bermuda were halted as 105 MPH winds from the outer bands blew down remaining structures and left piles of debris. Heavy rain once again caused severe flash flooding just as floodwaters from Hermine's first landfall began to recede. After the second landfall, barely any structures survived Hermine's hits on the island. Bermuda was reduced to nothing more than a deserted island due to the destruction. Hermine continued to weaken as the system tracked WNW, towards landfall in the United States, being the first hurricane landfall there since Arthur in 2014. The NHC issued Hurricane Warnings for North Carolina and Virginia, with evacuations mandatory as landfall at possible Category 4 intensity would result in major destruction. However, by August 15, increasing wind shear began to severely weaken Hermine as its structure began to deteriorate. Furthermore, the weakening in Hermine's core increased further as the storm underwent an eyewall-replacement cycle, with limited inflow and updrafts causing several storms from within the core to dissipate. By the end of the day, Hermine had weakened to a 105 MPH Category 2 hurricane, and was still rapidly weakening thereafter. On August 16, Hermine officially made landfall in Wilmington, North Carolina with maximum sustained winds at 100 MPH. Damage was considerable as 87% of southeastern North Carolina lost power due to downed power lines and snapped electrical wires. Heavy rain, coupled with an eight-foot storm surge, caused major flooding to beaches as well as on roads, resulting in significant closings of several highways during Hermine's passage. Over three million trees were uprooted due to high winds, with most left standing being heavily de-foliaged. Most harbors and boardwalks were destroyed by strong waves, with reports of excess debris washing up on beaches as far north as Massachusetts for weeks after the storm. Boats snapped their moorings and were capsized in the rough surf, while others were pushed ashore, and even some blown inland by the intense wind speeds. Over 56,000 buildings in Wilmington alone were somehow directly impacted by the storm, with roofs being ripped off to windows being blown in. In addition, beachfront properties were reportedly gutted due to high winds, while trailers were blown over and often carried several miles from their original location. Hermine was also responsible for a devastating tornado outbreak across North Carolina, much of Virginia, and part of South Carolina, in which the storm produced 98 tornadoes from August 16-17, causing much devastation in North Carolina; with the majority of Hermine's tornadoes hitting heavily populated areas and causing destruction un-related to the storm itself. Though no tornadoes were stronger than EF2, major damage occurred in Wilmington, Raleigh, Charlotte, and other cities as the tornadoes from the storm plowed through and caused major damage. Damage from Hermine was the worst in North Carolina history, even surpassing Hazel of 1954. On August 17, after being stalled over North Carolina for nearly 12 hours, the system pushed inland slightly and gradually turned extratropical over Virginia, where over nine inches of rain fell from the storm, causing flash flooding. Gusts exceeding 110 MPH resulted in scattered power outages across the state, in addition to stripping roofs off houses and uprooting large trees. In some cases, the winds from Extratropical Storm Hermine blew cars off roads, resulting in the closure of several highways in Richmond and the surrounding areas. On August 18, Hermine briefly turned subtropical prior to landfalling in Manhattan, which took a devastating hit from the storm. Gusts up to 80 MPH shattered windows and blew siding off high-rises in the city, while also collapsing billboards in Times Square, killing seven people. In addition, many trees were blown over and ports sustained heavy damage from pounding waves, which flooded and washed out several coastal roads. Sewers overflowed from excessive rainfall totaling eighteen inches, causing ten of New York City's subway tunnels to flood and be out of operation for six weeks after Hermine's hit. On nearby Long Island, houses across the region sustained heavy wind damage from the powerful gusts, mainly roof damage, in addition to submerged basements as a result of severe flooding, not seen since Sandy in 2012. Trees across the region were de-foliaged from the storm, while power outages persisted after Hermine's departure due to the amount of damage thrust upon utility lines in the area. In the United States and Bermuda, Hermine caused over $54 billion in damages, becoming the third costliest hurricane in Atlantic history, only behind Katrina of 2005 and Sandy of 2012. The death toll from Hermine in the United States amounted to 43 fatalities, with most caused by deadly flash flooding from the torrential rainfall. Only a week later, the remnants of Tropical Storm Lisa would move through the same area and further the mass devastation caused by Hermine, with the damages combined from both storms in New York far surpassing that of Hurricane Sandy.
Hermine once again transitioned into an extratropical system on August 19 as it crossed into Atlantic Canada, still producing winds sustained at 60 MPH. Nova Scotia received a direct hit from Hermine, with a ten-foot storm surge eroding a significant portion of coastline along the southern edge of the country, in addition to washing out several roads and inundating over 800 homes from Shelburne to Sherbrooke. Gusty winds from the storm caused over 750,000 power outages, with most heavily concentrated on the southwest portion of the nation. Several McDonald's storefronts in Halifax sustained heavy damage when high winds shattered windows and compromised the framing of these buildings, resulting in the collapse of their facades. In Nova Scotia, the extratropical remnants of Hermine caused nearly $900 million in damages, with up to fifteen fatalities reported, having been the most destructive storm to strike the country in Atlantic history, as well as the fifth storm of the season to make landfall there. Extratropical Storm Hermine produced waves up to sixty feet off the coast of Newfoundland, which received torrential rainfall over six inches, causing severe flash flooding and inundating thousands of homes across the region. Rivers overturned their banks and released up to four feet of water, sweeping homes off their foundations and leaving behind empty concrete bases and piles of debris. A stretch of land from Corner Brook to Halfway Point remained uninhabitable due to torrential flooding and saturated ground. In Newfoundland, damages were less severe, amounting to $87 million, with four lives claimed as a result of the storm. Hermine's remnants later dissipated east of Newfoundland on August 20, having been one of the longest-lived extratropical systems to occur in the Atlantic. Altogether, Hermine caused well over $56 billion in damages during the course of its life, becoming the third costliest hurricane to occur in the Atlantic basin, as well as being the first Category 5 hurricane to form in nine years - the last being Hurricane Felix of 2007. Hermine's death toll was limited in the scope that only 62 direct fatalities exacted from the storm due to widespread warning and well-executed preparedness.
On August 12, an initially poorly-developed African tropical wave began to develop cyclonic-type circulation just west of Morocco. Associated with a decreasing area of low-pressure, the wave became Tropical Depression Ten later that day southeast of the Leeward Islands. Within hours, the depression became increasingly organized as the outer bands of the storm tightened. A U.S. navy vessel named Elizabeth Faro III was patrolling near Barbados when the storm hit, of which crew members reported gusty winds and heavy rainfall, but only moderate surf that posed dangers to small boats. Ian then strengthened to 50 MPH as it passed to the west of St. Vincent, where the storm caused only minimal damage. Ian continued to track west as it entered the Caribbean, strengthening under ideal conditions as warm waters fueled moisture inside the core, effectively building powerful storm cells as the eye-wall became increasingly well-defined. On August 14, an NHC recon flight identified a small, ragged eye in the core as the pressure continued to drop. Only minutes later, another powerful burst of convection in Ian's core resulted in its upgrade to Category 1 hurricane when 75 MPH wind speeds were identified in Ian's inner eye-wall. The storm continued to track WNW, indirectly impacting Aruba, and much less severely, Venezuela, with large waves and rip currents responsible for drowning several swimmers, as well as capsizing several small rowboats, resulting in a total of eleven fatalities. In addition, large waves stirred up from decreasing pressure and intense winds flooded coastlines from Aruba to Jamaica, eroding up to six miles of beach and coastal property total. Just northeast of Honduras, Ian's structure continued to improve, becoming a 100 MPH Category 2 hurricane the next day, August 15. Hours later, Ian peaked at 105 MPH before rapidly weakening as landfall in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo became apparent. On August 16, as Ian approached landfall in El Placer, the storm began to weaken as less moisture and drier air abounded, beginning to shed its outer rain bands as the storm's structure fell apart entirely. Max winds were estimated to be 75 MPH as the storm made landfall over a highly unpopulated area, making losses much less significant than compared to what they could have been had the storm made landfall in a city, such as Cancún. Damage was confined mainly to forests and beaches, with powerful gusts downing thousands of trees, as well as sandblasting many shrubs and other native flora. In addition, a seven-foot storm surge inundated up to ten miles of coastline, completely submerging entire beaches underwater. Due to the massive destruction to plants, many herbivores in the area suffered as their numbers started declining due to lack of food. Ian became extratropical shortly thereafter, entering the Gulf of Mexico as an explosively-weakening system that dissipated off the coast of eastern Mexico only two hours later, having failed to regenerate. In total, Ian caused mainly minimal damage, mostly indirect while over water. Flooding was reported far inland in the Yucatán in populated areas as Ian moved inland, washing out many local roads as well as some national roads. In addition, strong winds pummeled trees, downing tens of thousands of them, blocking roadways as well as severely damaging homes and businesses. Overall, Ian caused $1.1 million in damages, and resulted in thirteen deaths altogether.
Tropical Storm Julia
On August 15, a frontal system collided with a weak low-pressure system over Puerto Rico and slowly began to strengthen as short bursts of convection began to occur in the system's center. A sudden increase in the storm's wind speed to 40 MPH further resulted in the system's upgrade to a tropical storm, thus resulting in its name, Julia. Julia continued on a WNW path, convection bursts in the system continuing to build its structure. On August 16, Julia made landfall over Cockburn Town in Turks and Caicos, which was still recovering from a direct hit by Hurricane Fiona earlier in the season. However, though Julia's max wind speeds were 65 MPH, relatively minor damage occurred, partially because the storm was not nearly as strong as Fiona, and also because the area had not undergone a total-rebuild cycle. However, Julia's circulation had undergone rapid expansion, enveloping the area under severe weather conditions for several hours. Julia had drawn in massive amounts of moisture, which were released in the form of torrential rain. Rain hampered reconstruction projects conducted on housing developments throughout the region; with heavy amounts of water collapsing wooden frames for new houses, as well as softening the ground to the point where some smaller structures, such as maintenance sheds, were reported to have partially sunk into the ground. In addition, surviving buildings from Hurricane Fiona were heavily damaged by Julia, supposedly because Fiona unknowingly compromised their stability when the storm hit. The most devastating part of Julia was when a restaurant supposedly compromised by Fiona's storm surge collapsed with people inside due to torrential rain, killing all occupants inside. In addition, high winds associated with heavy rain caused significant slowdowns and driving accidents on roads; with gusts as high as 90 MPH blowing cars off Lighthouse Road on the north end of Cockburn Town. Finally, powerful gusts collapsed newly-erected structures on construction sites, as well as ripping the roofs off of already-damaged buildings not yet repaired from Fiona. Julia's storm surge remained only four feet in height, but easily spread across many of the islands, causing serious problems and contaminating leftover water supplies and backing up sewer pipelines as they overflowed from heavy rain, as well as inundating homes, while those located at lower elevations were reported to be completely submerged. In areas where power was just restored from Fiona, electrical lines were once again damaged by high winds or affected by flying debris.
Julia weakened slightly as it continued WNW, degenerating back down to 45 MPH as it hit the Bahamas, causing problems mainly with heavy rains and storm surge, the latter of which caused massive flooding problems across the islands, with some coastal cities reported to be underwater after Julia's passage. Beaches were primarily gone after a ten-foot storm surge, stirred up from chaotic low-level winds, made landfall and caused significant damage, primarily at the southern end of West Side National Park. At times, torrential rainfall submerged inland roads to the point of being closed off, while powerful waves eroded beachside streets and properties. In addition, gusty winds reportedly downed some power lines in Andros Town, resulting in scattered power outages as thousands of people lost electricity. In addition, flooding and heavy rainfall led to the seepage of sewer lines, contaminating water supplies, resulting in a total loss of water supplies across the island. Julia continued to track west, making landfall in Miami, Florida later that day as a 40 MPH tropical storm beginning to rapidly degenerate due to increasing dry air and land interaction, despite remaining over water during the storm's first two landfalls in Turks and Caicos as well as the Bahamas. Julia's effects in southern Florida were somewhat limited in the view that damage was mainly minimal from the storm. Over thirteen inches of rain fell in Miami, with reports of minor flooding and inundated homes in suburban areas. Also, minor tornadoes were reported across the Florida mainland, though only an EF1 in downtown Miami caused significant damage, including skyscraper windows being blown in, as well as ripping the roofs off smaller buildings and uprooting trees prior to dissipating over Virginia Key, having caused $2.5 million in damages separate from the rest of the storm. On August 17, Julia weakened to an extratropical depression as it turned northward over the Gulf of Mexico, drawing in massive amounts of moisture, once again building up the storm's thunderstorm complexes to make it subtropical, later making a second landfall in Panama City, Florida with winds of 50 MPH. A five-foot storm surge affected up twenty miles of coastline, eroding nearly eight miles of beach, thrusting several beachfront properties in imminent danger, whilst other houses collapsed and fell into the Gulf. Heavy rainfall caused flooding as far inland as Georgia, while high winds uprooted small trees and knocked out power, as well as blowing down signs and shattering windows on buildings across the city. Julia weakened to a remnant low over Georgia, shifting northeast as mountain peaks over North Carolina tore the system apart on August 19. In total, Julia was seriously devastating, causing over $8 million in damages, and resulting in eleven fatalities in both Florida and the Turks and Caicos.
Hurricane Karl (WIP)
On August 18, the NHC began monitoring a fujiwhara between an organizing tropical wave and an upper-level low for potential merging into what was a rare tropical system. Within hours, the rapidly strengthening wave became a depression and absorbed the low into itself, thus doubling the size of the mammoth system. Within the next hour, Tropical Depression Twelve became extremely organzed as convection started appearing in both the upper, mid, and lower levels of circulation. The organization of the system also substantially improved on satellite imagery while it continued to track northwest into the Lesser Antilles, showing landfall there the following day as a tropical storm as depicted by most models. However, the rapidly-improving structure and pace of the storm's intensification defied initial forecasts as Karl later intensified into an 80 MPH Category 1 hurricane on August 18 - the same day it had undergone development. On August 19, Karl had grown in size while it began developing feeder bands that fueled the growth and development of the eyewall. Several hours later, Karl made landfall at that intensity over Barbados, and later Saint Vincent, with damages from the storm being much higher than anticipated due to its unexpected and rapid strengthening prior to landfall. Karl had taken in large amounts of moisture that built up several bands of intense thunderstorms around the ring of convection, with produced high winds and blinding rainfall across the southern end of the Lesser Antilles. Karl's winds were responsible for blowing down power lines across both islands, causing sporadic power outages and blocking roads. Karl also brought down large tree limbs and uprooted others when the ground became too saturated due to heavy rainfall. Public, main roads across Barbados were temporarily shut down by the government due to excessive amounts of debris blown onto them. Most deciduous and palm trees exacerbated the effects of the wind damage because of their being defoliated by high winds. The initial impacts from Karl on the Lesser Antilles were found to be much more severe in nature due to the storm's widespread circulation and large wind field, in addition to its slow movement as it tracked over the islands.
As Karl emerged into the Caribbean the day following its landfall, August 20, the NHC forecasted it would continue to track northwest and weaken towards its projected landfall in Haiti and be sheared by the mountainous terrain of the nation. However, Karl defied forecasts once again as the position of the jet stream kept the storm in the southern Caribbean, where it continued to rapidly intensify. By August 21, Karl had formed a strong central dense overcast complete with a solid ring of convection wrapping around the developing eye; the characteristics Karl was undergoing at this stage in development helped to solidify its classification as an annular hurricane. Later that day, Karl attained major hurricane status as a trough to the north complete with large amounts of moisture fueled the growth of the storm as Karl then had a wind radius extending over 238.6 miles, with maximum sustained winds being 120 MPH at the time. Around that point in the storm's intensification, the NHC identified strong and well-defined outflow on all sides of the storm, with convection continuing the rapid deepening of the core. The next day, the explosive intensification continued as Karl became a Category 4 hurricane northeast of Aruba, with the storm's widespread circulation engulfing the island in its outer bands, resulting in heavy rainfall across much of the island. Karl also produced powerful rip currents and rough surf on the coasts of the ABC Islands, with some swells impacting the coast of northern Venezuela. Storm surge from Karl produced minor flooding along the coast of Aruba, with waves as high as nine feet eroding up to eleven miles of coastline and washing away roads and capsizing boats whilst causing other vessels to snap their moorings. Heavy rainfall contributed to severe flash flooding in the inland areas of Aruba, having created slick roads and indirectly causing seventeen vehicle accidents. Karl's rainfall totalled over four inches in the ABC Islands due to its very slow movement, with amount of rainfall causing tree limbs to snap and building foundations to sink as much as 0.6 inches. In the Lesser Antilles and ABC Islands, Karl caused over $60 million in damages, mainly to trees and coastal property, but not a single death was reported despite little to no warning and no evacuations. Karl briefly intensified to a 160 MPH Category 5 west of Aruba the following the day, but quickly weakened back down to a Category 4 due to a slight eyewall-replacement cycle. However, abundant moisture and a solid, well-organized eyewall with a ring of convection helped the storm to easily recover from this and retain intensity as Karl's strong outflow and large size later caused the trough to dissipate. The next day, Karl once again attained Category 5 status and retained this intensity for the following four days - the longest of any Category 5 in the Atlantic. By August 27, Karl had attained 180 MPH winds extending for nearly 40 miles from the core, thus making Karl one of the largest Category 5s on record. In addition, Karl also became the third most intense Atlantic hurricane, with its minimum lowest pressure being 891 millibars at peak intensity. Also, that same day, the storm began showing signs of landfall in Nicaragua at peak intensity, with neighboring countries, such as Belize, forecasted to be heavily impacted by the large circulation and extremely high winds - this would make Karl the second Category 5 of the season to make landfall at that intensity - next to Hermine earlier in the season. 2016 would also become another rare season in which two storms made landfall at Category 5 intensity - the last season to do so was 2007, with Dean and Felix, respectively. Mandatory evacuations were issued throughout Central America as Karl bore down on the mainland, becoming the most intense Atlantic hurricane to form at such a southern latitude, though Felix of 2007 still holds the record for southern-most forming and southernmost-landfalling Category 5 in Atlantic history.
Ahead of Karl's landfall in Nicaragua, powerful rip currents and rough surf caused enormous problems for those along the coast. Karl produced waves as high as 60 feet off the San Andres Islas, with rough seas causing boats in the area to capsize and sink, with crew members from these shipwrecks often turning up as dead or missing. Strong rip currents pulled nearly 170 people out to sea, warranting the United States Coast Guard to travel to teh area and perform as many as 25 rescues in one day over a three-day period. This would prove helpful later on as Karl's eyewall passed over the area and wrought mass devastation. Later that same day, Karl did pass over the area, causing catastrophic damage. The lowest recorded pressure was in the city of San Andres, with it falling to 911 millibars as the eye just fourteen miles to the north. In addition, the area experienced the highest winds in recorded history, with maximum sustained winds being 179.6 MPH during the most intense part of the storm, with unofficial reports of gusts being over 200 MPH. The force of the wind-driven waves caused concrete pillars to collapse and demolish sand dunes along coastal properties, in addition to totally destroying sea walls and inundating beaches and beachside buildings. High winds caused the 22-foot storm surge to submerge all three islands under three feet of water, with some houses being entirely engulfed and plunged under the floodwater, with the sheer force of it causing some buildings to come un-attached from their foundations. Karl also completely cut off the electrical supply to the islands after nearly destroying the power grids; electricity has not yet been restored to the islands in late 2019. On satellite imagery following the storm, there was a clear difference in the islands' size and greenery; nearly all trees were defoliated and uprooted in the wake of Karl's violent winds. Following Karl, the storm had completely devastated the islands and set them back nearly 140 years in terms of development, with only bare signs of civilization remaining after Karl. It was an eerie resemblance to Bermuda, which was completely devastated by Hermine less than two weeks prior to Karl, and set back even farther in development - about 260 years. In the Islas alone, damages amounted to $12.3 billion, with over 800 fatalities occurring, a number lower than initially expected due to the storm's ferocious intensity. For a brief period of three days after Karl hitting the Islas, the three islands were not visible on satellite imagery due to the amount of water and storm surge leftover on the islands, with it rising to five feet in some places. The reason for it not subsiding immediately after the storm was due to the fact the seas were so unsettled in Karl's wake, and it was still causing strong waves and rip currents to the west of the Islas as it approached Nicaragua, where it later made landfall as a Category 5 the following day.
The day following its landfall in the Islas, Karl was expected to explosively weaken into a Category 1 hurricane prior to landfall in Nicaragua. However, Karl once again defied these forecasts and retained its Category 5 intensity as it made landfall over the country, only weakened slightly to 175 MPH as it approached Nicaragua. Even before Karl passes through the Islas, the government of Nicaragua ordered mandatory evacuations and issued red alerts for the entire country - the highest level of danger meant red alerts as Karl posed a great threat to the nation, even though it was only a Category 4 at the time. Despite forecasts explaining possible weakening, the sudden intensfication of the storm to 180 MPH made President of Nicaragua José Daniel Ortega Saavedra think otherwise as he carried out executive orders, explaining to the citizens of the country the great level of threat Karl had imposed upon them. Witnessing the devastation Karl had thrust upon the Islas, over 300,000 people evacuated from the coastline and were placed in shelters far inland. Most public roads and government offices closed down and were secured in order to prepare for Karl, and many high-ranking officials were transported to safety in Honduras. As Karl approached the country, high waves and incredibly rough surf resulted in significant coastal damage all along the shore. Coastal roads were completely washed out due to the force of the surge, while some waves were powerful enough to collapse parts of concrete ports and overtake miles of beach. As Karl's surge pressed farther inland, the sheer force caused smaller and less sturdier buildings to come un-attached from their foundations and be leveled by wind-driven waves. Aside from the storm surge, a plume of moisture had developed within the inner eyewall in between the Islas and Nicaragua, resulting in the formation of several more outer rainbands and an eighty-mile expansion of the eyewall, which resulted in record rainfall across much of the country, with some areas reporting nearly 19 inches of rain fell, with Karl having become the wettest storm in the country's history. As the storm pushed further inland, the torrential rainfall from the widespread circulation caused catastrophic flooding in areas untouched by the storm surge, which had pushed nearly six miles inland. The extreme amount of rainfall caused already-swollen rivers to overflow and flood the surrounding landscape. Also, the torrential rainfall was responsible for extremely damaging mudslides that decimated hillside villages and resulted in significant damage to the surrounding terrain, with elevated areas completely isolated from rescue due to bridges and communication lines being completely destroyed by the storm. In addition to the above, winds were often stronger at elevated locations, with Karl stripping entire mountainsides of vegetation. The record flooding from Karl and force and movement of the water caused trees and utility poles to come uprooted and fall over, in addition to submerging entire houses in low-lying areas, with over 40,000 residences deemed uninhabitable or compromised due to the flooding. Many frame and wooden homes were blown apart due to the violent winds, while concrete-reinforced buildings were often unroofed and windowless after the storm. Buildings with compromised stability following Karl often collapsed in the rainstorms that hit the country after the hurricane due to damaged supports. Damage was also heavily inflicted upon nearly every tree in Karl's path; with most being entirely defoliated and uprooted. Nearly 75% of the country lost electricity during the storm, with downed lines and other electrical issues caused by Karl contributed to a blackout that persisted until December 2016 due to the catastrophic damage. The storm was also strong enough to crumple and deform high-voltage pylons; with the majority of these being destoyed by the storm, cutting off power to entire regions, with live wires sparking wildfires following the storm moving out of the area. In the storm's wake, Karl left nearly all roads in its affected area impassible due to flooding and/or large amounts of debris on roadways, severely hindering search-and-rescue efforts following the hurricane, of which became the largest in the country's history. After shifting north into Honduras the following day, Karl had subjected Nicaragua to Category 5-conditions for nearly 17 hours, which resulted in colossal devastation and a massive death toll due to the storm's longevity and intensity, little to no apparent weakening, outdated building codes, the storm's movement inland, and a massive storm surge, despite mandatory preparations and evacuations. Throughout the country, Karl had left behind enormous damage, having become the second strongest Atlantic hurricane at landfall, with a minimum pressure of 897 millibars recorded in the eye of the storm at landfall. In total, Karl had caused $31.3 billion in damages, mainly to unprepared villages (which were often obliterated by the storm), with severe agricultural damage that resulted in food shortages; and over 1,407 fatalities in Nicaragua alone, mainly due to the storm surge and mudlides caused by the torrential rainfall.
As Karl shifted northeast after moving inland during its Nicaragua landfall, Karl had somehow managed to retain its intensity despite mountainous terrain and land interaction, with the circulation not being disrupted and the overall organization of the storm remaining solid as it crossed into Honduras as a large, 155 MPH Category 4 hurricane. The impacts from this hit were mainly confined to rural and farming areas on the eastern end of the country, though enormous damage was thrust upon the several small communities in Karl's path. The main concern was from damaging winds as Karl moved into the country, as dry air impeding circulation had resulted in a loss of moisture on the storm's south side, causing rainfall totals to drastically lessen. However, a large circulation and ongoing convection resulted in the core continuing to remain unstable, allowing Karl to retain near-Category 5 force wind speeds of 155 MPH. Karl's wind speeds were powerful enough to turn motor vehicles into enormous and dangerous metal projectiles; the force of the winds wrapped some cars around large trees and concrete poles like shrapnel. In addition, buildings in the storm's path were entirely stripped of their roofs, with shingles littering roads and blocking pathways after the storm. In addition, wooden buildings were completely destroyed by the hurricane, and glass buildings were stripped of their windows and left as deformed metal skeletons. Karl also produced a plethora of intense tornadoes across the country due to the terrain being much flatter in nature than in Nicaragua - with one tornado near Ahuas becoming a powerful EF3 that caused considerable damage to the outskirts of the city. Much like in Nicaragua, Karl still produced heavy rainfall that peaked around 5.6 inches at the height of the storm, loosening soil and triggering landslides within the region that killed hundreds and left hundreds more stranded. The rain also caused rivers to overflow and flood surrouding areas under eight inches of water, with some homes becoming uninhabitable due to the flooding. Debris was also carried by winds as metal was driven through tree trunks and broken pieces of wood and glass became dangerous projectiles. Throughout eastern Honduras, damage from Karl was severe, as the hurricane became the most prolific storm of the decade to make landfall there, and was the most intense hurricane to directly hit the country since Felix in 2007, which was only slightly stronger at landfall. Karl caused $11.8 billion in damages across Honduras, with 969 lives claimed as a result due to lack of adequate preparations and the storm's last-minute unexpected turn north into the country. Like Nicaragua, agricultural losses from Karl in Honduras were quite severe; with damages in that sector alone composing of at least half of the total damages in Honduras. After moving out of the country, Karl re-emerged over the Caribbean sea whilst struggling holding onto Category 4 intensity - maximum sustained winds in the system at the time were 135 MPH, teetering on the brink of sinking into Category 3 territory. However, strong convection and trough to the storm's north prevented further weakening as Karl began tracking northwest towards Quintana Roo. The following day, prior to making landfall for the fifth time in its track, Karl briefly re-attained Category 5 status after strengthening back to 160 MPH. However, sudden shelving induced by its impending landfall weakened Karl back to 155 MPH. That same day, Karl made landfall in Mahahual, Quintana Roo as the first hurricane landfall there since Ernesto in 2012. Karl also became the next major hurricane landfall there since Dean of 2007, though Karl made landfall over a much more densely populated area than Dean, resutling in extensive devastation.
Karl's fifth landfall proved to be one of its most devastating due to the storm making a direct hit on the city of Mahahual with winds of 157 MPH, thus making it a Category 5 at landfall, though shelving and a rapid transition into a dry environment complete with unfavorable conditions gradually weakened the storm as it crossed over the peninsula. Karl also produced gusts over 190 MPH at landfall, adding to the massive devastation. While the popular tourist hubs, such as Cancún and Playa del Carmen were spared the worst of Karl's effects, the southwestern end of Quintana Roo saw major impacts from the hurricane. Wind-driven waves were forceful enough to crumple steel girders; wave heights often reached 61 feet in height and tore protions of harbors and ports down, in addition to capsizing vessels large and small and eroding up to seventeen miles of coastline from the shore. Karl's storm surge reached 18 feet in height along the coast of Mahahual, damaging 21,000 beachfront properties and washing away several sea turtle nests, of which started causing a population decline within the area months after Karl's hit. Karl's winds also uprooted and snapped trees in half; the same damage was also inflicted upon power lines, which caused electrical outages throughout the country. In addition, live wires that snapped from the wind released sparks that sometimes caused nearby buildings and houses to catch fire. High-voltage pylons were also crumpled in the high winds, cutting off electricity to entire regions. The same occurred with cellular phone and radio towers, taking those services completely offline, with the services not being restored until months after the hurricane. Throughout rural areas, huts and other poorly-constructed buildings were completely demolished and left as piles of debris following the hurricane. Roofs were ripped off nearly every building in Mahahual, with the wind and waves from Karl strong enough to collapse brick walls and wash away entire roads, making rescues following the storm extremely difficult. Other pathways had become clogged with downed wires, tree branches, and other building debris after Karl, as well. Throughout Quintana Roo, the cities in Karl's path, mainly Mahahual, suffered tremendous damage, and with most electricial and communication services offline throughout the country, the government experienced extreme difficulty on finding discplaced and critically injured victims and the towns most hardest-hit by Karl. Karl's surge had caused disruption nearly three miles inland, and did not subside until nearly two weeks after Karl cleared the area. In some places, water was so deep transportation by rowboat, kayak, or canoe was the only feasible way of getting around. In Quintana Roo, damages amounted to $9.7 billion, with 120 fatalities caused as a direct result of the storm. As Karl passed through the Yucatán Peninsula as a weak Category 4 hurricane, the size of the core having shrunk over land despite having an enormous circulation, which resulted in the most destructive of winds being confined to 25-mile radius around the storm's eye. Concrete and metal power lines in the storm's path were blown down, and roofs were ripped off buildings in the towns directly in front of Karl's path. Heavy rain caused some flooding, though without storm surge, damages were nowhere as severe when compared to Quintana Roo. After emerging into the Bay of Campeche, Karl had weakened back to a Category 3 hurricane with 125 MPH winds. However, the sudden intake of moisture allowed Karl to slowly rebuild its cloud patterns and re-intensify back to a Category 4 hurricane for a final time as it later became the strongest hurricane in the Bay of Campeche since, ironically, Karl of 2010. Karl's Mexico landfall would later become the last time it would make landfall as a major hurricane.
Karl continued to track nortthwest as it remained just offshore from eastern Mexico, becoming the most intense hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico since 2005's Hurricane Rita, with Karl's minimum central pressure measuring 927 millibars. Later that day, August 28, Karl made landfall over Central Mexico, with the country's capital, Mexico City, taking a direct hit from the storm. High winds toppled building walls and snapped utility poles, in addition to turning bebris into flying projectiles and hampering driving conditions when coupled with blinding rainfall. Mudslides were reported in Central Mexico as Karl pushed northwest across the country; hundreds died as a result of this. Due to the terrain of the country, Karl underwent significant weakening in its track for the first time since emerging into the Bay of Campeche; with this secondary time resulting in its circulation being torn up and the storm's weakening back to a Category 1 hurricane with 95 MPH winds. Western Central Texas received high winds up to 85 MPH, with gusts as high as 145 MPH as Karl became the first Atlantic tropical cyclone to impact the country since Don in 2011, and the first Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in the state since Ike of 2008. San Antonio was hit head-on by Karl, though damage was far more minimal in nature given the storm's explosive weakening over Central Mexico. Winds near 80 MPH blew down power lines and snapped trees in half, causing extensive power outages across southern Texas. Trees were blown onto houses, sometimes crushing them completely. Tree branches also littered roads and blocked some streets, temporarily diverting traffic while clean-up operations went underway. Karl also had effects on Galveston and Houston as the storm's outer bands enveloped the two cities, dropping heavy rain that resulted in minimal flooding throughout the region. Tornadoes were also reported due to Karl, though they hit unpopulated areas and were generally weak in nature. Karl continued to track northwest as it retained 75 MPH winds despite an extremely dry environment and land interaction. Karl's inland intensity can be attributed to the Brown Ocean Effect, which states tropical systems are normally weakened by impending landfalls, though they can sometimes retain and even strengthen in intensity while over land. Karl became the first fully tropical cyclone to hit New Mexico, though its effects were limited to a 15 mile area around the storm's core, which hit a near-barren landscape. Soon after crossing the border, Karl weakened into a tropical storm that soon became a remnant area of low pressure that dissipated uneventfully over southern California on August 31. Due to the stupendous damages of $59 billion, Karl later became the costliest and strongest storm of the season, in addition to being the strongest Atlantic hurricane at landfall since Hermine earlier in the month, having surpassed that storm in intensity by 5 MPH and a 2 millibar pressure difference. Karl also knocked Hermine down to fifth place for being the most intense Atlantic hurricane, after Karl gained third, only behind Gilbert of 1988 and Wilma of 2005. Karl also became the third-costliest Atlantic hurricane, having knocked Hermine down to fourth place in that ranking. Overall, Karl's repeated landfalls, time spent as a Category 5, number of landfalls at major hurricane intensity made it a record-shattering storm, and one of the most devastating in Mexican history.
Tropical Storm Lisa
On August 21, a low-pressure system to the southeast of Jamaica began tightening its circulation as convection began to appear in the storm's core. The system then began to intensify rapidly due to a sudden drop in wind shear as Hurricane Karl continued to intensify to the southeast. Lisa became Tropical Depression Thirteen, of which later was pushed over Cuba by intense outflow from Category 4 Hurricane Karl as the storm passed to the south of Jamaica. Thirteen caused minimal damage to Cuba; mainly associated with heavy rains that caused serious flooding towards the eastern end of the island nation. Gusty winds resulted in minor tree damage and snapped power lines, causing isolated power outages across the region. Isolated tornadoes were also reported in Cuba, though none were stronger than EF0, all of which caused slight damage to trees, buildings, and crops. In addition, heavy rainfall triggered several mudslides across the region, causing major damage to cities and hillside residences. Thirteen continued to travel NNW and eventually emerged over the Gulf of Mexico. As favorable conditions enveloped and boosted the storm, the center of low pressure continued to drop while convection tightened around the core. By August 23, Thirteen was fully upgraded to Tropical Storm Lisa.
Lisa continued to track WNW across the Gulf as it later peaked at 50 MPH the next day, August 24. Several ships were reportedly caught in Lisa's circulation, though none reportedly intense or dangerous conditions. Many reported waves only four feet in height that would only pose dangers to smaller boats and vessels, though torrential rain made conditions dangerous for navigation, as powerful gusts rocked lighter boats to the point of capsizing, whilst others were sent off course and blew on shores that were not their original destination. Later that day, Lisa made landfall in Cocodrie, Louisiana as a 45 MPH tropical storm, having been weakened by the impending landfall. Lisa's direct hit caused moderate damaged around the city, though, as the core of the storm pushed inland, powerful gusts as high as 90 MPH caused major damaged, including ripping shingles off roofs and blowing in windows. Downed trees abounded; of which some fell on homes and businesses, while others blocked roads and littered yards and parks. On August 25, 0235UTC, Lisa transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over Alabama, having lost its tropical characteristics due to land interaction. Dry air continued to impede the structure of the storm, as Lisa's remnants lost their closed circulation a day later over North Carolina, where the storm produced high winds and light rain, causing moderate damage. Reports of intense tornadoes were reported across the state, which was hit by one of the largest tornado outbreaks in the state's history just a week prior when Hermine made landfall in North Carolina. Most tornadoes caused significant damage as they hit populated areas throughout the state, with most rating EF1 or EF2 on the Enhanced-Fujita Scale. An EF2 ravaged Raleigh, North Carolina as Lisa passed through the state, dumping more than 12 inches of rain in under an hour, causing severe flash flooding as many rivers and creeks overturned their banks, having just begun to recede after Hermine dumped nearly 17 inches of rain during landfall. Scattered power outages abounded as a result of high winds snapping wires or knocking trees onto lines. Lisa also brought severe thunderstorms and heavy rain to Virginia; eventually traveling to New York by August 27. There, the remnants of Lisa caused damage with rough surf along the coast, eroding beaches as well as contaminating water supply pipes and overflowing sewers. In addition, ten subway tunnels were inundated, having caused more damage than Sandy did in 2012, as well as adding to the already extensive damage caused by Hermine days earlier. In total, Lisa caused a grand estimate of $960 million, having become one of the most destructive tropical storms of all time, only behind 2001's Allison. After dissipating over Atlantic Canada, Lisa caused over 67 deaths, most of which are attributed to the catastrophic flooding that occurred during the storm.
Tropical Depression Fourteen
On August 24, a low-pressure system to the east of Turks and Caicos began to undergo a transition into tropical development as closed circulation developed while the system's outer rain bands began intensifying. Even before the storm turned tropical, the extratropical system produced 35 MPH winds and heavy rains, mainly in Cockburn Town, causing flash flooding and slick roads. Gusty winds damaged trees and bent signs over, as well as assisting in making driving conditions impossible throughout the city, resulting in the closure of many high-traffic and exposed roads and interchanges, including state highways, which remained open even in Hurricane Fiona. As the system shifted northeast, tracking away from the islands, it entered a more favorable environment as moisture and warm water became abundant, as less dry air became entrained in the system. Soon after, the system became subtropical while winds jumped to 30 MPH, thus resulting in the system's upgrade to Tropical Depression Fourteen. The system remained at a subtropical intensity until August 26, when Fourteen entered a large, very favorable patch of warm waters, thus allowing for a substantial improvement in the system's cloud pattern, becoming fully tropical soon after. However, Fourteen then shifted NNE, towards cooler waters and increasing wind shear, which soon began to weaken the storm. Fourteen then turned extratropical the same day as it continued to track NNE. On August 27, Fourteen further degenerated into a remnant low that made landfall in Newfoundland the same day. Damage was mainly confined to trees; smaller ones were either bent or uprooted. In addition, 4 inches of rainfall resulted in minor flooding in low-lying areas. In addition, the rain caused weak or damaged roofs of certain buildings to collapse; fortunately, no deaths were reported as a result of this. The remnants then turned ENE, eventually making landfall in the UK on August 29, causing minor damage. In either country, damages were minor, and the storm did not result in any fatalities.
Tropical Storm Matthew
On September 4, a vigorous extratropical system pushed across Mexico and emerged just north of the Yucatán over the Gulf of Mexico. The system began to rapidly intensify as it took on subtropical characteristics, then tropical characteristics within hours, having being upgraded to Tropical Storm Matthew when a recon flight found 45 MPH winds in the storm's deepening core. Matthew continued to travel northeast across the Gulf as Tropical Storm Watches were issued from Louisiana to the Florida Keys as the storm took on a fairly large size for a tropical storm. By September 5, Matthew experienced a burst of convection prior to slamming into a trough of wind shear, which resulted in the southwest portion of the storm being torn apart, however, convection and rapid pressure drops resulted in the formation of an eye in the core. Matthew continued to rapidly intensify over coming days; strengthening to 65 MPH on September 6 off the coast of New Orleans, Louisiana, which received heavy indirect effects from Matthew. Outer bands from Matthew's large eyewall dropped over nine inches of rainfall in the city, causing flash flooding and hampering driving conditions across the extreme southern end of the state. Most local roads and some national and state-level roads closed due to heavy flooding, with some being entirely submerged in areas, with attributes to torrential rain. Beaches and coastal properties were either eroded or flooded by large waves, with some reaching heights exceeding 55 feet. Some bridges and coastal roads were entirely destroyed by the force of Matthew's storm surge, leading to the closure of several important roads, diverting traffic around the entire southern edge of the state. In addition, high winds sustained at 60 MPH downed trees and power lines, as well as stripping roof shingles off houses and flinging debris onto roads. While Matthew's hit was not entirely devastating to southern Louisiana, the storm was responsible for twelve deaths after its passage, in addition to causing $1.8 million in damages, most attributed to infrastructure destroyed by Matthew's storm surge.
As Matthew continued to track ENE, the storm once again shifted away from land as another burst of convection took place in the core. As Matthew's eastern and northern eyewalls continued to grow in size, the storm once again underwent rapid strengthening - this time with Matthew attaining its peak intensity of 70 MPH, 992 mbar on September 7. As Matthew passed offshore of Mississippi and Alabama, the storm produced large swells and a small storm surge, causing minor beach flooding and erosion along the coasts of these states. In addition, waves exceeding 30 feet in height crashed onshore in some places, resulting in the closure of nearly all public beaches in Alabama. Large rip currents resulted in the disappearance of several small boats as the surf pulled them out to sea, while powerful waves overturned other boats, drowning some passengers aboard the vessels. In addition, Matthew's powerful waves damaged piers and boating harbors, with some harbors severely affected by the storm as waves caused certain vessels to snap their moorings and result in them being pulled out to sea. Two people were reported to have drowned after a large wave destroyed the pier they supposedly were on at the time. Matthew's extremely large circulation also dropped over eight inches of rain north of Biloxi, Mississippi at the extreme minimum, causing flash flooding and rivers to overturn their banks, though the most intense portion of the storm remained several miles offshore. The NHC continued to forecast tropical storm warnings as the slow-moving storm continued to track towards landfall in Florida, even though the impending landfall caused Matthew to once again turn subtropical, though it retained its 60 MPH intensity. At 2300UTC [on September 7], Matthew's large and powerful circulation moved into the state, bringing very heavy rain in addition to a large storm surge, high winds, and tornadoes. High winds caused scattered power outages throughout the Florida peninsula, leaving tens of thousands of customers across the state without electricity. In addition, gusts up to 80 MPH downed trees and blew debris onto roadways, especially in northern Florida, where the most intense part of the storm hit. Several tornadoes also touched down in various parts of the state during Matthew - with the highest rated tornadoes being EF1. In St. Petersburg, an EF0 caused minor structural damage and downed small trees in the west end of the city. Near Sarasota, several waterspouts moved ashore, damaging harbors and boardwalks in the city, as well as flattening sand dunes and uprooting small trees. An EF1 in Orlando ripped roofs off of houses and blew out billboards in the outskirts of the city. Other tornadoes were reported, but damages were either light or non-existent. Matthew's large circulation engulfed nearly the entire state, producing severe thunderstorms and heavy downpours across the entire peninsula. Up to nine inches of rainfall in Tampa caused severe flooding problems in addition to electrical failures, causing many buildings to be inundated as water collected inside. Damages from storm surge were relatively light, as the highest of waves remained offshore or were confined to rural/unpopulated areas. As Matthew moved out of the state, damages were predicted to have exceeded $700 million, however, that is an overestimate. In reality, damages from Matthew were far more minor, having amounted to only $21.8 million, with only one fatality directly attributed to the storm. A day later, September 8, Matthew hit the Bahamas as a tropical depression, bringing light rainfall and gusty winds, causing minimal tree damage, in addition to producing several waterspouts in coastal waters only miles away from public beaches. Damages from Matthew in the Bahamas were minimal. In the Turks and Caicos, a three-foot storm surge and rainfall totaling less than an inch were attributed to Matthew. Later that day, Matthew turned extratropical as it began to curve northeast, staying offshore of the eastern United States. Soon after, Matthew turned extratropical as its size began to rapidly decrease as increasing levels of wind shear battered the storm. On September 9, wind shear increased to a point where Matthew's remnants could not continue, resulting in the storm being torn apart just prior to making landfall in Nova Scotia as an extratropical cyclone. In total, Matthew caused $22.9 million in damages, with 13 confirmed fatalities.
On September 10, a tropical wave began to undergo development just east of the Bahamas. Within hours, the system was estimated have winds maxing at 30 MPH as the new depression continued to travel west. The core of the system remained unstable as continued bursts of convection occurred in the core, substantially improving the structure of the depression while thunderstorm activity within the overall bands skyrocketed. Hours later, Tropical Depression Sixteen lost its frontal features as the increasing intensity of the storm resulted in a separation between it and the frontal system it attached to days prior. Early the next day, September 11, Sixteen was upgraded to Tropical Storm Nicole as the storm's organization within its inner eyewall continued to improve remarkably while nearing Turks & Caicos. Relatively minor swells impacted the coastlines of these areas hours ahead of Nicole, causing minor flooding and beach erosion, with rip currents resulting in dozens of rescues of swimmers pulled out to sea by the rough surf. Later that same day, Nicole made landfall in Turks & Caicos as well as the central Bahamas, bringing heavy rain due to tremendous amounts of moisture drawn in by the storm while over sea. The rainfall peaked at 12 inches when calculated by Beaches Turks & Caicos, a hotel found on the island of Providenciales. Minor reports of flash flooding were reported across the islands, with the ground already saturated by Fiona, Julia, and Matthew, the torrential rainfall from Tropical Storm Nicole became a nuisance as more flood damage took place. Over millions of dollars in damage occurred to crops in the area as excessive amounts of rainfall began to kill plants whilst making fields enormous puddles of mud. High winds blew signs down and trees onto roadways, causing several major accidents across the islands whenever this occurred. In addition, heavy rains washed out some areas of road in addition to the powerful six-foot storm surge, closing several major highways and roads needed to pass from island to island, isolating the Grand Bahama and Paradise Island entirely. As Nicole passed over the islands, her organization continued to steadily improve, expanding her circulation substantially as the outer bands of the storm continued to intensify. Winds inside the inner eyewall jumped from 60 MPH to 70 MPH as Nicole approached Florida, where it later made landfall early the following day. On September 12, just west of Nassau, Nicole continued to fully intensify despite slight land interaction. As an eye feature became visible, dropping pressure and abundant convection resulted in increasing precipitation and 80 MPH winds speeds, furthering an upgrade to Category 1 hurricane.
That same day, September 12, Nicole made landfall in Hollywood, Florida as a 90 MPH Category 1 hurricane undergoing rapid intensification, heavily relying on moisture and bursts of convection to stay intense. In doing this, Nicole was the first hurricane landfall in Florida in over ten years - last hurricane landfall in Florida was Hurricane Wilma of 2005. Damaging winds caused problems for many across southern Florida, in addition to resulting in significant structural damage and power outages in many communities. Miami felt the most damaging of Nicole's winds as the eye passed just several miles to the north of the city. Instability resulted in sustained winds of 90 MPH, with gusts as high as 110-115 MPH. High winds caused severe damage across the state; powerful gusts higher than 100 MPH downed hundreds of trees on Interstate - 95, resulting in significant portions of the highway being closed, with torrential rain collecting on parts of the road, causing varied slow-downs and a plethora of vehicle accidents due to blinding rain and/or slick roads. High winds also resulted in sporadic power outages across much of southern and central Florida; snapping wires and/or downing utility poles altogether. In addition, many skyscrapers in downtown Miami had windows blown out from the wind, with more powerful gusts ripping steel frames and siding off said buildings. The highest gust reported during Nicole's Florida landfall was in Miami - with a 5-minute gust reaching 130 MPH, causing extreme damage. Nicole also spawned several powerful tornadoes in Florida - two of which were ranked EF3 on the Enhanced-Fujita Scale, with one touchdown reported in Homestead; the other in Marco Island, both of which caused major devastation. The Marco Island tornado reportedly destroyed over 26,000 houses, in addition to blowing down hundreds of thousands of trees and power lines, causing blackouts as far north as Estero. On September 13, Nicole passed to the north of the Dry Tortugas, producing very strong swells that capsized several boats and flooded beaches along the north end of the islands. Waves as high as 37 feet caused major beach erosion and destroyed boating harbors throughout the area, causing several smaller craft to snap their moorings/anchorage and be pulled out to sea by strong rip currents. Nicole's outer bands produced gale-force winds and heavy rain ahead of a cold front tailing the storm, dropping temperatures way below-average - to 45 degrees Fahrenheit in Key West, Florida. Rainfall totaled up to four inches, causing slick roads and making driving difficult across the Florida Keys region. Gusty winds caused no other damages other then bent road signs and broken tree limbs/de-foliaged trees. A four-foot storm surge partially eroded a slight bit of the coastline along the northern edge of the Dry Tortugas, as well as flooding coastal roads and highways, resulting in closures of several public beaches and piers, in addition to road closings due to standing water collecting from flash flooding. As Nicole continued to push west into the Gulf of Mexico, favorable conditions and extremely warm waters of 98 degrees Fahrenheit allowed for rapid intensification as the storm's eyewall began to regenerate.
On September 14, just north of Cuba, Nicole underwent an explosive strengthening trend as massive updrafts and copious amounts of moisture allowed for an intense and well-developed eyewall structure as the size and organizational structure of the storm improved substantially. Very warm waters continued to fuel the storm as it acquired Category 2 status, followed by sustained winds of 120 MPH less than an hour later, having become a major hurricane. The eye of the storm became very large as the storm's movement began to increase as it shifted NNE. Powerful rip currents affected all of northern Cuba, as well as parts of the Cayman Islands, pulling several swimmers and boats out to sea, and even drowning four locals when high waves overtook them. In addition, Nicole's outer eyewall hit northern Cuba, causing tropical storm-like conditions, with winds sustained at 60 MPH, causing minimal damage. Most tin and wooden huts were easily damaged by Nicole's wind speeds, with entire roofs peeled off in strong wind gusts. In addition, power lines blew out due to strong winds, causing widespread electrical blackouts in several Cuban provinces. Soon after, Nicole began a track due north, very similar to Katrina of 2005, approaching the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Alabama. The NHC began to post Hurricane Watches as Nicole continued to show signs of deepening, and with favorable conditions ever-abundant, the intensification of the storm continued to be obvious. On September 15, Nicole passed over the Central Gulf as its wind speeds were upgraded to 130 MPH, having become a Category 4 hurricane, still showing signs of continued development, and with possible landfall at that intensity, thus possibly making it one of the most catastrophic storms to landfall in the United States in years. The NHC issued mandatory evacuations shortly after Nicole peaked at 150 MPH; nearly Category 5 intensity. Ahead of Nicole's impending landfall, strong rip currents and powerful waves caused serious problems from eastern Louisiana to Pensacola, Florida. Over 300 rescues were performed on swimmers pulled out to sea by intense sea tides; however, nine people drowned and were unable to be saved. In addition, dangerous boating conditions were reported along the Gulf Coast due to extremely high and forceful waves. Several small boats capsized due to rough surf, with up to seventeen people drowning as a result. On September 16, Nicole weakened back to 130 MPH as a sudden spike in wind shear occurred near the Mississippi coastline. Over hundreds of thousands people fled their homes to escape the first major hurricane landfall in the United States in over a decade.
Nicole further weakened back to a 120 MPH Category 3 hurricane several hours later as the cloud tops began to degenerate as wind shear took its toll on the storm. However, Nicole proved to be one of the most dangerous storms of the season, as the conditions caused by the major hurricane were unlike any other storm to make landfall in the United States during the season. Hurricane-force winds encompassed an area stretching over 70 miles, with the most intense part of the storm over Mississippi and Alabama, with winds sustained at 120 MPH. A thirteen-foot storm surge caused massive coastal flooding, with inland areas receiving up to four feet of water from the Gulf, inundating over 30,000 houses in Gulfport and Biloxi. Up to ten miles of beach erosion occurred, thrusting over 600 beachfront houses in imminent danger, with over 450 of them falling into the Gulf. Pounding waves collapsed piers and destroyed boating harbors, causing hundreds of craft to drift out to sea and were later destroyed and sunk by high waves. Wave heights often exceeded 70 feet in height, with one buoy near Grand Isle reporting a wave exceeding 86 feet in height. High waves collapsed seaside bridges and roads, with heavy rain flooding other roads across the state, resulting in their closure for weeks after the storm's passage. Nearly one hundred vehicle accidents were reported due to slick roads and blinding rain hampering driving conditions, while floodwaters on roads pushed cars off roads, causing nearly twenty fatalities. In addition, sustained winds at 120 MPH caused significant damage near coastal areas and inland as Nicole continued to push northward. Wind-driven waves and powerful gusts leveled entire buildings and left behind enormous piles of debris. Trees were de-foliaged by the winds, while entire forests were flattened, isolating several areas in Nicole's doing so. Nearly all of the Mississippi lost electricity as thousands of power lines were snapped and/or uprooted by Nicole's winds. In addition, several regional power suppliers were heavily damaged by Nicole, leading to an extensive loss of electrical power that persisted for months after Nicole's departure. After Nicole's hit, damages amounted to $24.3 billion, making Nicole the 7th costliest Atlantic hurricane on record. The hardest-hit cities by Nicole were Gulfport and Biloxi, both of which experienced a storm comparable to Nicole in intensity in 2005 - Hurricane Katrina. However, Nicole was nowhere near as devastating as Katrina, and residents were able to resume their lives in relatively little time compared to Katrina's recovery time, respectively. Nicole's death toll amounted to 47 lives, mainly attributed to poor preparations done by the individuals who anticipated minor impacts. Nicole later turned extratropical on September 17 over Kentucky, producing torrential rainfall over the southern and upper midwest regions of the United States. Several rivers overturned their banks and flooded nearby towns, causing major damage. Across the Eastern United States, over 670,000 homes were said to be severely inundated due to flash flooding. Also, Extratropical Storm Nicole produced over 60 tornadoes, with the majority concentrated in Tennessee and Kentucky. On September 19, the extratropical remnants of Nicole dissipated over Nova Scotia, where damages from the storm were minimal and mainly confined to uprooted trees and scattered power outages.
Tropical Storm Otto
On September 13, a developing tropical wave east of the Yucatán began to slowly intensify, intensification hindered due to increasing wind shear. Within hours, the system turned northeast as a sudden pressure drop resulted in intensification near the storm's core. Tropical Depression Seventeen, as it became known as, then passed over the Cayman Islands, bringing heavy rain that resulted in widespread flooding, as well as the production of a weak tornado near George Town that resulted in $23 million in damages. The tornado hit several populated areas; damaging the roof shingles on homes and knocking out power in addition to blowing limbs off trees and pulling awnings off of windows. Experts determine that had the tornado hit a rural area instead, damages may not have been nearly as high. Fortunately, the storm did not cause any fatalities over the Cayman Islands, and any and all injuries reported were minor. Continuing northeast, the intensifying Hurricane Nicole limited the intensification of Seventeen due to increasing outflow and wind shear from Nicole's intensity. Instead of being absorbed into the system, Seventeen was pushed south, into the Pinar del Río province of Cuba, bringing high winds and heavy rainfall to the relatively un-battered country. Relatively minor damage occurred, with up to five inches of rain being welcomed due to the ongoing drought and heat wave in the country. Flood damage and some inundated houses did occur in low-lying and flat areas, but was mainly minimal. On September 14, Hurricane Nicole moved to the north of Cuba, causing inclement weather across much of the country and hindering Tropical Depression Seventeen's intensification. However, Nicole began to track northward soon after, causing an atmospheric river to develop between the two systems, eventually causing the eyewall-like characteristic Seventeen was developing two disappear as Nicole pulled more than half of Seventeen's circulation into itself. This triggered flooding rains over northern Cuba, with as much as 23 inches falling in two hours due to Seventeen's moisture release and heavily stalled movements. The worst of the damage was observed in Havana, where the worst flooding in decades occurred, causing nearly two million homes and businesses to be submerged as streets turned into gushing rivers. In addition, Seventeen was responsible for triggering several mudslides in the mountainous regions of the country, killing six people after their houses were destroyed by the catastrophic event. Major flooding occurred in valleys across the region due to the excess rainfall and bodies of standing water overflowed. In Havana, the city sewer system overflowed and contaminated their supply of drinking water, with a 91% loss. Even though the storm was a tropical depression, the damaged that occurred in Cuba during the storm was significant, making it one of the most destructive storms in Cuban history.
Later that day, Seventeen continued to track northeast, with development severely inhibited by outflow and increasing shear from Category 4 Hurricane Nicole. The circulation of Seventeen became very disorganized due to the increasing output of shear, but it managed retained its intensity as it moved northeast, where warm waters and an inflow of moisture caused a burst of convection within the core. Within hours, the pressure started to drop as more well-developed thunderstorms grew in the core, building up the complex structure as Seventeen finally began to undergo some intensification as winds were increased to 50 MPH, being named Tropical Storm Otto. At 2240UTC September 14, Otto attained its peak intensity of 60 MPH, 986 mbar while over the Dry Tortugas of the Florida Keys, which, under Otto's increasingly widespread but disorganized circulation, received 7.82 inches of rainfall. Torrential rain caused severe flooding across the Florida; inundating nearly 800 homes and causing the roofs of several commercial buildings to collapse; killing four. In addition, gusty winds blew down several power lines, causing scattered power outages that persisted for weeks couple with Hurricane Nicole's indirect hit on the Florida Keys days prior. On September 15, Otto began to undergo weakening due to increased land interaction and a decrease in moisture as the storm moved over Marco Island, Florida, bringing mainly heavy rain and fresh breezes, resulting in minimal impacts with the exception of the storm surge. Waves exceeding 15 feet in height partially collapsed weak piers and overtook boardwalks, in addition to capsizing boats along the shores of southwestern Florida. Up to six miles of coastline was flooded, thrusting over 700 beachfront properties in danger of being obliterated. High winds ripped roof shingles off frame and manufactured houses, as well as tearing loose siding off poorly-constructed houses. Small trees were uprooted in the gale-force winds, with some power lines snapping as a result of flying debris and/or tree branches falling on the lines. Lightning strikes ignited several fires across the southwest part of the Florida mainland, with some building roofs and trees catching fire as a result of this. Later that day, Otto weakened to a subtropical depression over the Bahamas, where heavy rainfall caused flash flooding on every island, which was recovering from a direct hit by Hurricane Nicole late the previous week. Over 120,000 houses were inundated due to the catastrophic flooding event that took place, with sewers overflowing and spilling into streets, in addition to water main pipes bursting as a result of intense pressure, causing a massive loss and contamination of the Bahamas's water supply, which persisted for seven weeks after the storm's hit. The contamination event was not single-handedly caused by Tropical Storm Otto itself; a multitude of storms and hurricanes built up damage within the sewer system, until utter destruction occurred during Otto's hit. With the islands at a loss for fresh and clean drinking water, supplies had to be airlifted into the islands for nearly three months following Otto's hit. In total, due to the massive flooding event, Otto's damage amounted to $14 million, with thirteen confirmed deaths in the Bahamas. Late September 15, Otto began an extratropical transition northeast of the Bahamas as it began to track across the North Atlantic. A day later, the system dissipated entirely as it began to curve northwest, offshore from the coast of the United States. The trough of low-pressure from Otto brought gale-force breezes and steady rainfall to New Brunswick on September 16, with severe thunderstorms firing on the southwest end of the storm produced an EF1 ten miles west of St. John, ripping the roofs off homes in the area, in addition to de-branching many trees and blowing down power lines. The storm finally dissipated soon thereafter west of Newfoundland, having caused over $61.7 million in damages and sixteen fatalities altogether.
On September 23, an upper-level low merged with an extratropical system near Bermuda and began to produce inclement weather to the south of the island, mainly torrential rain and severe thunderstorms. Within hours, convection began to coalesce around a centralized area of low pressure, resulting in a tightening circulation of the system's outer rain bands. By the next day, September 24, the size of the intensifying system began to grow as a cyclonic-type circulation began to appear around the growing system. Thunderstorms continued to build up a variant of an eyewall as rotation intensified around the deepening core. Soon after, the increased rotation resulted in a wind speed increase to 30 MPH, becoming Tropical Depression Eighteen. Eighteen continued to travel NNE across a moderately favorable Northern Atlantic, which helped to aid in steady formation of the system. On September 25, Eighteen passed completely to the east of Bermuda as the storm took on a track similar to Hurricanes Alex and Earl earlier in the season. Above-average SSTs, in addition to copious amounts of moisture, allowed for further development of Eighteen as the core of low-pressure continued to decrease, further building the structure. Later that day, a closed circulation was identified by the ISS, soon after 50 MPH winds were discovered in the core, being named Tropical Storm Paula. Paula continued to track ENE, with most models showing further intensification into a strong tropical system with possible hurricane intensity late in the storm's track. The eyewall continued to grow in size into September 26, as the deepening core continued to grow more ragged until a slightly visible eye feature appeared, with developing thunderstorms leading around the edge of it. Hours later, Paula's wind speed increased to 65 MPH as development of the system continued further. On September 27, Paula attained hurricane status as the structure was very well-defined around a centralized core of low-pressure, with wind speeds topping 75 MPH. Paula persisted into September 28 as the movement of the storm slowed severely due to increasing wind shear. Over the next several days, Paula underwent explosive weakening, degenerating down to a 45 MPH Tropical Storm by September 30. Paula remained sustained at this intensity, however, as it underwent an extratropical transition. This took place into October 1, with an upcoming landfall over the Azores. Paula briefly strengthened prior to landfall there, with Storm Warnings in place after the effects of Hurricanes Alex and Earl earlier in the season.Extratropical Storm Paula made landfall over the Azores on October 2, with maximum sustained winds at 50 MPH. Paula's slowed movements triggered flooding rains across every island as moisture was released in enormous bursts due to interaction with the mountainous terrain. Nearly six inches of rain fell, with some higher altitudes receiving heavy snow due to cooling temperatures. The torrential rainfall, in addition to the snow, triggered nearly 60 mudslides, with most occurring on the islands of Faial and Pico, where severe damage resulted. Over hundreds of people remained stranded in the mountains due to the mudslide debris blocking roads, in addition to valleys being submerged as rivers and creeks overturned their banks. Over hundreds of roads were washed out due to the intense rainfall, with closures of several vital roadways, isolating many of communities. High winds damaged roofs on over seventy houses in Ponta Delgada, in addition to blowing over small trees and shorting out power lines, knocking out electricity to nearly 650 customers on the São Miguel island. Minor flooding was also observed in Furnas, inundating nearly seventy homes, with fifteen of them becoming uninhabitable. Extratropical Storm Paula also generated rough surf along the coast of Ponta Delgada, with eleven-foot waves flooding beaches and washing out coastal roads, with twelve people drowning as a result when vehicles were pulled out to sea due to the flooding. Paula's remnants moved out of the area the next day; having caused thirteen total fatalities and $2.4 million in damages. Paula further degenerated into a remnant trough on October 3, making landfall in Lisbon, Portugal the next day, having been one of the first storms in the Atlantic to do so since Gordon in 2012. Paula's effects were relatively minor given its explosive weakening prior to landfall; with less than an inch of rain falling during the storm. Gusts peaked at 37 MPH, having partially defoliated some trees in the city, in addition to damaging lawn furnishings, but resulting in no deaths. Paula's remnants continued to weaken over Spain, eventually dissipating completely on October 4 due to dry air completely killing off the system.
Subtropical Storm Richard
On October 5, a non-tropical area of low-pressure collided with a disorganized tropical wave 89 miles east of the Leeward Islands. The two systems merged, bearing much resemblance to Hurricane Karl's formation earlier in the season, eventually developing a cyclonic-type circulation as subtropical characteristics within the low became evident. The following day, October 6, the low continued to intensify as it separated from its frontal boundaries while convection continued to heat up the core. Several hours later, the circulation continued to intensify as ground-level winds were upped to 30 MPH, having become Subtropical Depression Nineteen. Nineteen continued to track WNW as it later made landfall over Barbados, triggering several mudslides as torrential rainfall caused major flooding and other problems across the island. Over thirty different roads and pathways were washed out due to the intense rainfall, with nearly twenty-two inches falling in under two hours, severely hampering resuce workers' efforts in being transported around the island. Landslides that occurred in higher elevations decimated hillside residences and villages, stranding over 450 people in the mountains as roads remained impassible. Low-lying areas were heavily battered by floodwaters and wind-driven waves, some lifting weak buildings from their foundations and carrying them for miles, while nearly 2,000 homes were inundated due to the catastrophic flooding. Nearly all trees and utility poles were somehow affected, with the force of the water uprooting millions of trees and power lines, knocking out electricity to nearly three million people across the island. After SD Nineteen's passage, the island of Barbados and neighboring islands indirectly impacted by the storm were declared disaster areas by President Obama, with the highest levels of alert issued for the Lesser Antilles, most importantly Barbados, due to the storm's widespread and surprisingly severe damage. Nearly $140 million exacted from the depression, with over 50 lives claimed as a result of the destruction.
Soon after the storm's first of four separate landfalls, three of which would be consecutive, Nineteen entered the favorable Caribbean as a substantial improvement in cloud patterns became apparent. Nineteen then experienced rapid bursts of convection as a sharp shift in steering patterns sent the storm NNW. The system continued to show signs of improved organization into October 8, with Nineteen producing swells exceeding four feet in height along the shores of the Leeward Islands; as far North as Antigua. Strong waves pummeled harbors and beaches, with several public coastal properties closed as Nineteen passed to the west. Local governments suspended all water-based activities until the rip current warnings issued by the NHC were discontinued. Several boats, despite repeated warnings, were found capsized due to high waves, with one buoy south of Antigua reporting a wave reaching 67 feet in height, though more evidence is needed to verify this. On October 9, atmospheric convection greatly improved within the core, as its winds were soon upgraded to 40 MPH, leading to the formation of Subtropical Storm Richard. Richard later made landfall over the Dominican Republic, which received torrential rainfall and strong northernly flow from the storm, sparking the formation of scattered thunderstorms across the region. Heavy rainfall amounted to nearly ten inches, resulting in sporadic flooding as several rivers overturned their banks and roads were washed away. Over 123,000 houses were inundated or even completely submerged due to floodwaters rising as high as three feet in some areas. High winds blew down power lines and tossed debris onto roads, in addition to snapping tree limbs and blasting windows on several high-rises out. Several tornadoes were reported, though none were ranked higher than EF0, due to relatively minimal impacts. High amounts of lightning were also reported during Richard's landfall, with several strikes starting wildfires in rural parts of Hispaniola. One man in Punta Cana was reportedly struck by lightning during Richard; though he later survived. Other strikes ignited a fire at a gas station in La Romana, causing a deadly explosion that decimated four city blocks. Richard later turned east on October 10, with landfall in Puerto Rico as a 40 MPH subtropical storm. In the Dominican Republic, Richard became a devastating and memorable storm due to the destruction and catastrophic flooding that occurred as a result of the storm. Deaths were relatively high despite excessive warning following the damage in Barbados caused by the precursor disturbance to Richard. Soon after the storm, surveyors estimated damage could have been as high as $1.9 billion, though this was a significant overestimate as maximum damage totals in the Dominican Republic were estimated to be $231 million, with the worst of it in the area of Punta Cana, which was devastated by the worst flooding since Erika the previous season. As Richard continued to track east, the sudden inflow of moisture caused a large swelling event with the inner eyewall that induced an ERC, weakening Richard down to a 25 MPH Subtropical Low with very heavy rain and gusty winds. On Octber 11, Richard made landfall in Puerto Rico, dropping very heavy rain exceeding amounts over twenty inches, causing severe flooding and rivers to overturn their banks. Large bodies of flood and standing water on roadways resulted in their closure across the country, while rough surf washed out coastal roads and eroded beaches. Strong waves eroded beaches and collapsed piers along the western edge of the country, and isolated power outages were a result of downed power lines, attributed to gusty winds. Richard then turned WNW as it underwent an extratropical transition, with landfall in the Turks & Caicos on October 12. Damage in Puerto Rico was minimal, with a plume of moisture released from the storm, dropping nearly thirteen inches of rain over the country in less than three hours, triggering widespread flooding events that led to nearly 300 homes being uninhabitable after Richard's passage. Richard then turned northeast, making landfall over Turks & Caicos as a 20 MPH remnant low weakening rapidly due to terrain interaction and drier air.On October 13, Richard's extratropical remnants lost nearly all moisture on the south side as lopsided convection built up the northern eyewall, leading to excessively strong gusts on the south side of the storm, with bursts as powerful as 70 MPH. Richard also became the tenth storm of the season to impact the Turks & Caicos, earning 2016 a record for the most storms in one season to affect the same place. Unlike previous landfalls, where wind speeds did not pose a threat and rainfall did, Richard's Turks & Caicos landfall produced high winds and light rain, causing severe wind damage, mainly inflicted upon trees and power lines. Several power lines were snapped across the country - resulting in sporadic power outages that persisted for a week after the storm's passage. In addition, trash and other street debris were blown around in the high winds, sometimes striking people and causing significant injuries. Trees were partially defoliated across the nation, especially along coastal areas, where winds gusted at speeds of nearly 90 MPH, whilst shallow-rooted ones were pushed over and even uprooted. Many beachfront properities were sandblasted due to high winds, while wind-driven waves hindered boating and swimming activities. The powerful gusts also hampered driving conditions as lighter cars were often pushed off-road due to the wind speeds. After landfall in Turks & Caicos, damage remained relatively light across the region, amouting to only $2 million, with one indirect death. Richard's remnants than caused gusty winds across a relatively unpopulated region of the Bahamas, followed by landfall in Miami, Florida. Richard was an unnaturally strong extratropical low over Florida, developing a well-defined structure and northernly flow which generated hurricane-force winds in the system upon landall. Windows on several high-rises throughout the city were blown out, as Richard's remnants became the fourth storm of the season to make landfall there. Hurricane-force winds exuded from within the extratropical low, which appeared better organized at Florida landfall than it did at peak intensity as a subtropical storm west of the Lesser Antilles. As Extratropical Storm Richard hit Miami, Nicole-level damage appeared around the city as windows were blown in on skyscrapers and awnings were blown off houses. Power lines on the outside of the city were blown out, causing a widespread electrical outage that persisted for nearly two weeks after the storm. Palm trees across the southeastern edge of the state were defoliated, with tree leaves and limbs littering roads and yards after the storm. In Hollywood, a 100 MPH downburst from Richard collapsed a gas station awning, killing three. Relatively little rain was associated with Extratropical Storm Richard as dry air and cooling inflow resulted in a loss of its central dense overcast when hitting the Bahamas. Richard also sandblasted beachfront properties, with some businesses along the coast of Ft, Lauderdale reported sand being entrained in their respective plumbing and central ventilation systems, with parking lots covered under as much as two feet of sand. Wind-driven waves as high as nine feet collapsed piers and boardwalks throughout the state, in addition to destroying harbors and driving boats aground or capsizing them at sea. Throughout southern Florida, the extratropical remnants of Richard were very noticeable and comparable to a Category 1 hurricane, with residents throughout Miami and neighboring towns left to clean up debris after Richard departed the state. Richard then slammed the Florida Keys the following day, bringing 65 MPH sustained winds and a plethora of tornadoes and waterspouts. High winds downed over four thousand trees and power lines throughout the islands and ripped roofs off of homes in Key West. Over 117 million people throughout the Florida Keys was left without power - the worst electrical outage since Rita of 2005. Waterspouts were reported near all the islands, some of which came ashore and inflicted minor damage upon homes and native flora throughout the region. Several homes were reported to have cracked windows and minor roof damage after an EF0 plowed through Key West. Another tornado was reported in Marathon, where cars were blown off roads and shutters were torn off of buildings throughout the city. Funnel clouds reportedly caused high winds outside of Key West and induced dust devils along the beach there. Another possible tornado was reported outside of Key West as high winds ripped an entire roof off of a processing plant there. Winds at the time were reportedly 80 MPH. Hours later, the extratropical low, formerly known as Richard, later encountered increasing levels of wind shear in the Gulf of Mexico, eventually dissipating it on October 14, having caused a grand total of $193.8 million in damages, an amount that was significantly lower than expected, though the majority of impacts were far more minimal than previously reported, with only seven deaths in the United States directly attributed to the storm.
Tropical Storm Shary
In mid-December, a late season tropical wave began pushing off the western coast of Morocco, slowly organizing under a developing area of low pressure. This wave later passed to the north of Cape Verde, dropping six inches of rain and causing wind damage; including blowing roof shingles off houses and snapping electrical wires. The unusually strong and well-defined wave continued to track west as its structure held together, despite high levels of wind shear and cooling waters that impeded development. On December 17, the slow-moving wave began to organize under a rapidly deepening area of low-pressure, with rotation becoming much more defined on satellite imagery. Several hours later, convection continued to pick up in the system as thunderstorms within the core continued to fire and intensify. Wind speeds were indentified to be 35 MPH, later supporting an upgrade to Tropical Depression Twenty-One. However, as the depression continued to track west, it was later sheared due to decreasing sea surface temperatures and a lack of moisture associated with a strong trough of wind shear. Twenty-One soon became a subtropical low with a disorganizing structure, and the NHC later discontinued advisories on the storm. By the next day, the trough dissipated as the system once again began to improve in convection while a substantial increase in cloud patterns became apparent. An hour later, closed circulation was identified, and the system was re-instated back to tropical depression status, as the core continued to become more well-defined. By December 19, the circulation was very well-defined with 40 MPH winds identified at the core of the storm, having then been given the name "Tobias". The next day, a large pool of cooler waters froze moisture inflow into the storm, having weakened it back to a subtropical depression as it became slightly disorganized.
The following day, Tobias' forward speed largely increased as its pace quickened to 28 MPH. Tobias left the trough as it underwent significant strengthening, while the NHC issued a Tropical Storm Watch for the Turks & Caicos in addition to the eastern end of the Greater Antilles. Convection increased significantly at the core while the eyewall continued to grow in size as a pinhole eye feature dveloped around the rising cloud tops. On December 21, the slowed movement of the storm had allowed its core to stabilize and maintain a near hurricane-force intensity of 70 MPH. Soon after, the plume of mosture fully developed inside the eyewall, resulting in a substantial increase in cloud patterns until Tobias became a well-developed storm with an eye feature starting to form in the core; of which continued to rapidly deepen and expand, foreshadowing the storm would do something unexpected in the future. On December 22, Tropical Storm Tobias made landfall over the heavily damaged Turks & Caicos with winds topping 70 MPH. Tobias disrupted holiday celebrations and preparations as it made landfall just days before the holiday known as Christmas, which takes place annualy every year on December 25. Heavy rain from Tobias' eyewall caused significant flooding across much of the islands; Cockburn Town was reportedly isolated under five feet of water due to the heavy rainfall. Tobias' plume of moisture had become very well-defined on radar and was responsible for the excess rainfall that fell during the storm's first landfall. Heavy rains also impacted power grids, with excess water causing live lines to snap and ignite the ground to the point where small fires started, only to be doused by rain several hours later. In Cockburn Town, a house reportedly caught fire and burned to the ground after a live wire snapped and was blown towards the structure, igniting it. Fortunately, no fatalities or injuries happened as a result. In the Caicos islands, Tobias caused $10.2 million in damages and resulted in three fatalities. Afterwards, the storm continued on a westward track towards the Bahamas. Hours later, Tobias had weake ned slightly due to land interaction, with maximum winds of 50 MPH exerted over the Bahamas, with the storm's shrinking core exuding the worst of conditions on Crooked Island, which was pummeled with heavy rain and gale-force winds that caused moderate damage over a rather small radius. Mainly minor flooding was observed across the island, especially in wetland-type areas and along the coast, where beaches were closed to swimmers due to rip currents and rough surf; the latter of which had caused several large boats to overturn in the adverse conditions. Some homes in the area sustained roof damage, while small trees were uprooted. In addition, beaches were flooded due to rough surf, while piers were partially collapsed due to the force and caliber of the waves. The Bahamas, mainly Crooked Island, sustained moderate damage in excess of $34 million from Tobias, with only four people reported dead from the storm.
After moving away from the Bahamas, it is believed that Tobias briefly experienced a burst of convection within its core that resulted in 75 MPH winds being briefly exuded within the core prior to its landfall in the Everglades as a strong tropical storm. Due to Tobias' third landfall being over a relatively un-populated area, effects were mainly minimal. Hours later, Tobias pushed over the Florida Keys with winds maxing 60 MPH. Marathon bore the brunt of the storm's damage as heavy rains and pounding waves wrought destruction across the city. Most coastal roads and properties were washed out due to a six-foot storm surge, which resulted in the drownings of nine people despite the closure of public swimming areas during Tobias' passage. In addition, high winds blew down power lines and knocked out power to over 460 people throughout the city, with some outages that persisted for weeks after the storm. Tobias also produced several EF0 tornadoes in and around Marathon, one of which severely damaged the roofs on several homes, while blowing all the windows out on another. The storm also brought down a large amount of tree limbs and pushed cars off roads. The next day, Tobias took an abrupt shift northward as it later exited the Florida Keys. By December 22, Tobias had underwent some of the fastest intensification of any storm since Hermine in August - later achieving its peak intensity of 125 MPH on December 24 as it very slowly tracked northward towards the Florida panhandle. Due to its record strength, Tobias became the final hurricane and final major hurricane of the season, as well as being the strongest post-season storm to occur in the Atlantic. By 0100UTC December 25, the outer bands began pushing into Florida with evactuations still ongoing due to late warnings and the storm's unexpected strengthening prior to landfall. Several hours later, Tobias had completely come ashore with winds near 125 MPH, making the storm an even stronger hurricane at landfall than Nicole months prior. Tobias caused dangerous weather conditions in Pensacola as heavy rain caused vehicle accidents across the city due to slick and washed out roads and highways. The storm also caused widespread power outages that cut off electricity to nearly 95,000 people, with high winds downing lines across the state. Fires were also reported in Pensacola as live wires snapped due to high winds sometimes ignited homes and engulfed them in flames. Highways throughout Pensacola and surrounding area closed due to high winds, floodwaters, and trees being blown onto roads. Tornadoes were also reported in Pensacola and Alabama, having destroyed entire homes and downing hundreds of thousands of trees. Cars were also blown off roads and roofs were torn off large buildings. Throughout Florida and Alabama, Tobias became the second United States major hurricane landfall within the season, even stronger than Nicole at landfall, with both storms landfalling in nearly the same locations. Tobias was responsible for disrupting the yearly celebration known as "Christmas'", which is celebrated on December 25, the day Tobias made landfall. Across Pensacola, Christmas lights were blown off homes while yard decorations were turned into dangerous projectiles by the violent winds. In total, damages amounted to $8.45 billion in Florida alone, with over 80 lives claimed on that day due to delayed warning and ongoing evacuations while the storm made landfall.
By December 27, Tobias had weakened to a tropical storm as it began pushing over Georgia after pounding the Florida panhandle for two days with excessively heavy rainfall and tornadoes. Soon after, Tobias turned extratropical while retaining its structure and strength; heavy rains associated with Extratropical Storm Tobias caused flash flooding all across Georgia. Tobias' remnants also poroduced a widespread tornado outbreak across much of the southeastern United States in which the storm spawned over forty tornadoes, three of the most intense (EF3) causing the majority of damage, especially in Georgia. As it continued to track across the East Coast of the United States, Tobias' remnants produced excessively heavy rainfall as far north as Maryland, in addition to being attached to an unsual December warm front that brought unseasonably warm temperatures and severe thunderstorms to the Ohio Valley. Damage from the overall storm was minimal as it heavily weakened prior to moving into Ohio, but was exacerbated due to a second tornado outbreak that, although not as severe as the December 27 outbreak, but still resulted in the formation of 24 tornadoes, two of which later attained EF3 status, with both causing heavy damage around the Columbus area. On December 29, the extratropical remnants of Tobias had merged with a polar cyclone over Quebec, resulting in heavy snows and hurricane-force winds near 80 MPH over the southern end of the country. Tobias continued to persist into December 30, when the storm's circulation was no longer visible. After dissipating, Tobias had caused a swath of damage in its near-north path across the United States. Tobias also became the longest-lived December tropical cyclone and the most intense tropical cyclone to form during the same month. The storm was also the only major hurricane to occur in December in modern-Atlantic history, and also made 2016 a rare year in which activity occurred in both the pre-season and post-season; the last known occurrence of this was 2003. Finally, Tobias became the tenth costliest Atlantic hurricane in history, with total damages amounting to $15.8 billion, behind Hurricane Ivan of 2004, which also made landfall in the near-exact location where Tobias had made landfall, at nearly indentical intensities. Tobias was also the final storm, final hurricane, and final major hurricane of the season.
The following list of names will be used for named storms that form in the North Atlantic during 2016. Retired names were announced by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in spring of 2017, and all remaining names will be used once again in 2022. The list is the same used in the 2010 season, with the exception of Ian and Tobias, which replaced Igor and Tomas, respectively. The names Ian and Tobias were used for the first time in 2016. Two names; Virginie and Walter, remained un-used throughout the season.
- The List for 2016 -
In Spring of 2017, the 39th session of the World Meteorological Organization retired five names from the above list: Fiona, Hermine, Karl, Nicole, and Tobias. These will be retired due to the extraneous damage and high amounts of fatalities as a result of their storm's nature. They will be replaced with Fern, Holly, Kenneth, Natalia, and Tyler for the 2022 Atlantic hurricane season, respectively. This was the highest amount of names retired in a single season, tying with the 2005 season, which also had five names retired at the conclusion of the season.
- The List for 2022 -
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